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B 3 81Q M50 











Kentucky Geological 


Clay Deposits of Kentucky 



Clay Deposits of Kentucky 

An Economic Consideration of the Pottery, Brick, and 

Tile Clays, Fire Clays, and Shales of Kentucky, 

With Notes on their Industrial Development. 


Heinrich Ries 

Assistant Geologist 




Illustrated with Sixty-three Photographs, 
Maps €md Diagrams 

First Edition 
500 Copies 

The Kentucky Geological Survey 

Frankfort, Ky. 


/ 1 

• • • • •• • ••• • • • ' '. 

'•• • • ••• r . ' • •••••• 


' c 


Printer to the Commonwealth 

Frankfort. Kentucky. 

Letter of Transmission 

Dr. W. R. Jillson, 

State Geologist, 

The Kentucky Geological Survey, 
Frankfort, Ky. 
Dear Sir: 

1 beg to transmit herewith my report on the Clay de- 
posits of Kentucky, which is based on field work carried on 
during the summer of 1921 and laboratory work in the 
autumn following. 

While neither time nor funds were available to make 
either the field or laboratory work as complete as desira- 
ble, still it is felt that the results given will serve to give 
a fairly clear conception of the clay resources of the state, 
and also indicate in what regions further search should 
be made. To the data collected I have added such other 
previously published information as it seemed desiraJble 
to incorporate. The arrangement of the report has been 
made in accordance with your suggestions. 

Throughout the field and laboratory work I have been 
most efficiently and conscientiously assisted by Mr. Floyd 
Ilodson, whose services deserve special acknowledgment. 
Mr. C. E. Bales also rendered considerable assistance dur- 
ing a portion of the field season. It is likewise proper at 
this time to acknowledge the many courtesies that we re- 
ceived from the clay working firms and their representa- 
tives in all parts of the state, and to Prof. A. M. Miller of 
the University of Kentucky. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. RiES, 
Cornell Universitv, 
Dept. of Geology, 
Ithaca, N. Y., 
Nov. 19, 1921. 



Letter of Transmission „ v 

Chai)ter I. — The Clay and Shale Bearing Form- 
ations of Kentucky 1 

Chapter II. — Tests and Their Interpretation 15 

Chapter III.— The Purchase Region 29 

Chapter IV. — ^Western Coalfield and South Cen- 
tral Kentucky ^ 61 

Chapter V. — Blue Grass Region and Its Sur- 
rounding Belt of Knobs 109 

(^hapter VI.— The Eastern Coal Field 153 

Chapter VI I.— The Clay Working Industry 225 

Bibliography 234 

Index 237 


Oeneral view of Harbison Walker Refractories Company plant, 

Olive Hill Frontispiece 

Fig. 1. Map of Waverly outcrops 5 

Fig. 2. Map of Chester outcrops ^ 

Fig. 3. Bricks split by lumps of limestone, changed to quick- 
lime in firing 220 

Fig. 4. General view of portion of pit of Kentucky Construction 

and Improvement Company, Pryorsburg 38 

Fig. 5. Digging ball clay, Kentucky Construction and Improve- 
ment Company, Pryorsburg 3ti 

Fig. 6. Clay pit. Old Hickory Clay and Talc Company Hickory.. 43 

Fig. 7. Pit of Colonial Clay Company, Hickory 47 

Fig. 8. Pit of M. B. Cooley Clay Company, Hickory 48 

Fig. 9. Pit of West Kentucky Clay Company, Hickory Grove 50 

Fig. 10. Pit of Kentucky Clay Mining Company, two miles west 

of Viola 52 

Fig. 11. View in pit of Paducah Clay Co., showing black clay 56 

Fig. 12. Clay pit, Paducah Brick and Tile Company, Paducah 68 

Fig. 13. Shale bank, Murray Roofing Tile Company, Cloverport.... 65 

Fig. 14. General view of Owensboro Sewerpipe Company 66 

Fig. 14b. Stock Yard and Kilns of Owensboro Sewerpipe Company 67 

Fig. 15. Digging clay with steam shovel, West Point Brick 

Works, West Point 78 

Fig. 16. Brick kilns, Kleymeyer and Klutey, soft mud plant, Hen- 
derson 88 

Fig. 17. Firing a brick kiln, Kleymeyer and Klutey, soft mud 

brick plant, Henderson 89 

Fig. 18. Entrance to mine of Pontiac Coal Company, south of 

Madlsonville. Shows clay underlying No. 11 coal 92 

Fig. 19. Stripping of coal beds, Madlsonville. The limestone just 

above rails is limestone between Nos. 11 and 12 coals.... 92 

Fig. 20. Clay pit and plant, Madlsonville Drain Tile Company, 

Madlsonville 96 

Fig. 21. Circular downdraft kiln, drain tile plant, Uniontown 103 

Fig. 22. Providence Brick Company, Providence 105 

Fig. 23. New Providence shale bank, Blue Knob, Junction City.... 112 

Fig. 24. Kiln sheds, P. Bannon Brick Company Louisville 124 

Fig. 25. Machine for excavating shale, pit of P. Bannon Pipe 

Company, Coral Ridge 125 

Fig. 26. Bank of New Providence shale. Coral Ridge Clay Pro- 
ducts Company, Coral Ridge 126 

Fig. 27. Plant of Coral Ridge Clay Products Company, Coral 

Ridge 127 

Fig. 28. General view, Southern Brick Company, Whitner Sta- 
tion 128 

Fig. 29. Burners for using producer gas in brick kilns. Southern 

Brick Company, Whitner Station 129 

Pit of Progress Brick Company, Louisville 130 

Molding special shapes Louisville Pire Brick Works, 
Highland Park 132 

Kilns at Louisville Pire Brick Works, Highland Park.... 133 

Waco Pottery, Waco 138 

0:d Pottery at Bybee 141 

Making Pottery by hand at Bybee 142 

General View, Spahr Brick Company, Maysvllle 145 

Kiln sheds, Maysvllle Brick Company, Maysville 146 

Nelson Brick and Tile Company, New Haven 148 

Pace of flint clay, in mine at Grahn 159 

CoHglomerate below fire clay on ridge south of Fire 
Brick 161 

Entrance to mine at Ashland Pire Brick Company, one 
mile northwest of Ashland 165 

Ashland Fire Brick Company, Ashland 166 

Weathering clay, Ashland Pire Brick Company, Ashland 167 

Pire clay mine, Harbison Walker Refractories Company, 
southwest of Denton 175 

Open cut in plastic fire clay General Refractories Com- 
pany, Hitchins 178 

Pit of General Refractories Company, Hitchins. Shows 
impure shales overlying fire clay 179 

General view of plant of General Refractories Com- 
pany, Hitchins 183 

Entrance to Are clay mine at Grahn. The roof is Pptts- 
vllle conglomerate, which rests directly on the clay.. 186 

View of Louisville Pire Brick Works, Grahn 189 

General View of Olive Hi'l 191 

Kilns at General Refractories Company Works, Olive 
Hill 194 

Looking towards entrance of fire clay mine of Ashland 
Pire Brick Company at Hayward 199 

Ashland Fire Brick Company, Hayward 201 

Shale bank of Peebles Paving Brick Company at Fire- 

Brick 210 

Peebles Paving Brick Company, Fire Brick 211 

Kilns of Peeb es Paving Brick Company 212 

View from upper mine of Kentucky Fire Clay Company 

at Haldeman, looking towards dump of old mine 214 

Kentucky Fire Clay Company, Haldeman 216 

Clay pit of Corbin Brick Company, Woodbine 221 

Map showing location of fire clay mines, prospects, and 
fire brick works in Rowan County 218-219 

Pig. 61. Map of Kentucky showing location of clay pits and in- 
dustries 227 

Pig. 62. Map showing location of fire clay mines, prospects and 

fire brick works in Greenup, Boyd and Carter Counties 236-237 































































Clay Deposits of Kentucky 



Before taking up the clay and shale deposits in the dif- 
ferent parts of the state it may be well to note briefly which of 
the geological formations found in Kentucky are likely to con- 
tain materials of value to the manufacturer of clay products. 
Additional data on their general distribution can be obtained by 
reference to the geological map of Kentucky and a number of the 
special or regional reports issued by the Kentucky Geological 
Survey which are listed in the appended bibliography. 

From what follows it will be noted that there are a number 
of clay or shale-bearing formations but that all do not occur in 
sufficient thickness to be workable, nor are all of them of the 
proper character. However, even without these there remain a 
number of deposits of commercial value, which can be used to 
produce a variety of clay products. 

The formations noted below are referred to in the order of 
asL'cnding geological age. 

Eden Shale. The Eden formation of the Ordovician (Ref. 
22) was named from Eden Park in Cincinnati, Ohio, and there 
consists largely of shale with some interbedded limestone lay- 
ers. On account of the nature of the shale it is sometimes called 
'*blue clay'' and **soapstone." 

Because of the predominance of shaly beds at Cincinnati 
the Eden shale formation has been used there for brick manu- 
facture, but as it extends southward into Kentucky the lime- 
stone layei's increase and the shale layers decrease so that while 
it underlies a considerable area within the state, it is of no value 
to the clay worker in its fresh condition. It forms a belt of 
hilly country from 5 to 15 miles wide which has to be traversed 
in passing from the outer margin of the Bluegrass region to the 
inner part of that district. 

Plum Creek Shale. This lies near the base of the Silurian 
system of rocks, and is named from its occurrence on a creek 
in Madison County. It might do for the manufacture of clay 

•• • •••••• 

. • • .• ,'• .•••" • 


— _ ^^ 

/••.: :• :.• *p(fo(ftrt;1;S'li lt*^Srere thicker, but it is nowhere over 5 feet. (Ref. 

Osgood Shale, This formation is a subdivision of the Nia- 
gara series of the Silurian system of rocks, which includes several 
shale formations that are prominent on the east side of the Cin- 
cinnati arch but which do not appear to have been subdivided 
on the west side. 

The subdivisions on the east side of the Bluegrass region 
include the Estill and Lulbegrud shales mentioned below. 

In Jefferson County (Ref. 2, p. 78) the Osgood formation 
contains a shale 15 to 20 feet thick which lies between limestones. 
It is mostly a coarse, lumpy, gray shale running high in lime 
and magnesium carbonates. It weathers to a clay which forms 
white banks beneath the limestone beds. 

It is probably of little commercial value as better shales oc- 
cur in abundance in the general area in which it is found. 

Ltdbegrud Shale. This shale is named from Lulbegrud 
Creek, on the boundary of Clark and Powell counties. (Ref. 11.) 

It rests on the Oldham limestone, and underlies the Estill 
shale, being sometimes separated from it by the Waco limestone, 
which is of great aid in distinguishing the two shales in the field 
as they resemble each other very closely. 

The Lulbegrud which outcrops around the Bluegrass region 
is a light, smooth, bluish-gray shale which weathers somewhat 
readily to a very plastic clay. The chief impurities in it seem 
to be scattered crystals and rosettes of gypsum that can be seen 
lying on the weathered surface. 

It is a good material for the manufacture of brick and tile, 
but does not form a deep deposit, being rarely over 15 feet thick. 
However, on account of its close association with the Estill 
shale it could often be worked in connection with it. 

The Lulbegrud shale can be seen at a number of different 
points. There are excellent exposures along the tributaries of 
Lulbegrud Creek in Clark and Powell counties. Other outcrops 
are found south of Bardstown, Nelson County ; in the lower part 
of the barren hills known as Knob Licks north of Olympia, Bath 
County; in the territory between Irvine, Clay City, Indiana 
Fields and Brassfield, in Estill and Powell counties, where it 
is 13 feet thick; at Abner's Mill, Powell county; near Vienna 


on the Red River, Powell County; 1 mile east of College Hill, 
Madison County; just north of Waco, Madison County; east 
of Panola, Madison County, between the wagon road and rail- 
road; southeast of Brassfield, Madison County; 3 miles slightly 
north of east of Bobtown, Madison County; 11/^ miles south of 
east of Bobtown, Madison ; and 2 miles northeast of Berea, Madi- 
son County. 

The Waco limestone which lies above the Lulbegrud occas- 
sionally contains shale layers, but they cannot be commercially 
separated from the limestone. 

Estill Shale. This is a light, bluish gray, smooth shale, 
which may be gpysiferous, but not so much so as the Lulbegrud. 
It may reach a maximum thickness of 100 or more feet and is 
well worthy of consideration by the manufacturer of brick and 
tile. While it is overlain stratigraphically by the Onondaga 
limestone, it is not difficult to find exposures of it where the 
overburden is limited. The material weathers easily to a very 
plastic clay. 

It works up to a very plastic mass and fires to a red body 
which should prove of value for the manufacture of brick, tile, 
and hollow blocks. (See Chapter V.) 

Excellent exposures of this shale may be seen on the Irvine- 
Winchester Branch of the Louisville and Nashville Railway east 
of Howard Creek, the type exposures being around Irvine. (Ref 
11.) Other good ones can be seen just north of Crab Orchard, 
where along the pike to Lancaster, a continuous section of shale 
65 feet thick is exposed on the west side of the road. Further 
north in Lewis and Fleming counties even thicker sections of the 
bluish-white clay are seen. 

Waldro7i Shale. This is also of Silurian age, and forms de- 
posits up to 15 feet in thickness. It is not found on the east 
side of Bluegrass region. The material is high in lime and 
magnesium carbonates. It weathers easily to a greenish clay. 
In Jefferson County, for example, where it occurs, (Ref. 2, p. 84) 
other and better shales can be found. 

Ohio, New Alhany and Sunhunj Shales. These are black 
shales which are quite extensively developed in certain parts of 
Kentucky and easily recognizable. The first two are of Devonian 
age, while the third is of Waverly age or higher up geologically. 


Koughly speaking they occur chiefly in a curved belt of 
territory, lying inside of that outlined for the New Providence 
shale. (Pig. 1.) So far as the clay worker is concerned there 
is not much use of separating them as they are all gritty and 
black fissile shales, which weather first to flaky particles, that 
lack plasticity when ground and mixed with water. On complete 
weathering they loose their carbonaceous matter and change to 
a sandy reddish clay which can be used in the manufacture of 

In their unweathered condition it is better not to use them 
and in place to select the New Providence, or Estill shales. 

Bedford Shale. This is an important formation to the clay 
worker in Ohio, because in the central and northern portion of 
that state it contains a considerable quantity of good shale. (Ref. 
11.) When the formation extends southwest into Kentucky it 
may contain considerable sandstone, and the shale beds be2ome 
more gritty. Geologically the Bedford shale underlies the Berea 
sandstone formation which in Kentucky shows a splendid de- 
velopment of ripple marks, so that it can be easily identified. 
However as the Berea is traced southward in Kentucky it also 
changes into shale. 

In Lewis County the Bedford shale is 95 feet thick. Ac- 
cording to Poerste at Petersville, Lewis County, the combined 
Berea and Bedford formations consist of sandy shale 
with limestone layers. In the hills, a half mile to the east of 
Olympia springs, there is 12^/^ feet of soft bluish shale, changing 
to sandy shale in places. In the Caney Switch area of Bath 
County there are 191^ feet of Bedford-Berea shales. These rep- 
resent the most promising localities for these shales in central 

New Providence Shale. This is a very important, widely 
distributed shale formation, of Mississippian age, whose excel- 
lent character has already received recognition by the clay work- 
er, and which is being worked at several localities in Kentuck>\ 

It occupies a curved area, practically coextensive with the 
Waverly formations, extending in a great curve from Jefferson 
County on the west southward and eastward through Taylor and 
Lincoln County and then northeastward to Fire Brick in Green- 
up County. 


. ■ — ■ — - — - — * ■■ 

This formation has also been referred to as the Lini^tta, 
and Raccoon. It corresponds to part of what is known as the 
Cuyahoga shale in Ohio, and is used for clay products in that 

The New Providence shale is a soft, usually greenish shale, 
which weathers rather easily to a plastic clay. But even the 
fresh shale grinds up without difficulty, and forms a plastic 
mass with water. 

In Jefferson County, \vhere outcrops of it are well located 
for working, it has a thickness of 150 feet, though the entire sec- 
tion is not always exposed. Deposits of considerable size are said 
to occur near Chicago, Marion County. Just west of Junction 
City, Boyle County, the exposures in Blue Knob show a thick- 
ness of about 80 feet, and here where it rests on the black Ohio 
shale it shows near its base numerous concretions of phosphate. 
South of Central Kentucky the shale becomes more calcareous, 
and in Southern Kentucky passes into a limestone. 

East of the Bluegrass region it lies within the belt of hills 
called the Knobs, and is less favorably located for working. 

At Firebrick on the Ohio River a thickness of at least 75 
feet occurs in the hills and is also easilv accessible. 

In Jefferson County the upper half of the formation at 
times contains rather abundant iron carbonate concretions which 
may be coated with gypsum, and similar concretions have been 
noted at other points. These concretions may range from the 
size of a marble up to a foot in diameter. 

A chemical analysis of this shale from Coral Ridge, Jef- 
ferson County. (Ref. 2), gave: 

Snica ^ 60.40 

Alumina 19.73 

Ferric oxide 4.72 

Lime .78 

Magnesia 2.10 

Soda 96 

Potash 4.87 

Titanic oxide 83 

Ignition ^...^ 5.96 

I»MdJsture*« «!.f-..2 •A.L.J5 60 

• • •. 

• • • ♦• 

• • • .• .•• «•, ••• • • • 

• •• 




The New Providence is the most widely utilized shale in Ken 

It is quarried at Coral Ridge south of Louisville, Jefferson 
County, for making building brick, hollow blocks, and common 
red earthenware. It is also worked at Firebrick, Lewis County, 
for making paving brick. 

Some years ago brick were made from it about six miles 
southwest of Louisville, but the plant has gone out of e^^istence 
and the shale was worked up at a factory erected for making 
potash. This, too, is no longer in operation, but at the locality 
there is a shale bank fully 75 feet high, well located for easy 
working and only a few hundred feet from the Illinois Central 

Rosewood Shale. This formation overlies the New Provi- 
dence stratigraphically, although between the two there is a 
sandstone and conglomerate. 

Butts, (Ref. 2, p. 150), states that it forms the main body 
of the knobs south of Louisville, where it forms most of the slopes 
of these hills. Southward in Bullitt County it slopes do^ward 
until at West Point its top is almost at the level of the railroad. 

The entire formation is exposed in the road west from 
Brooks, Jefferson County, which is 21^ miles southeast oj£ Coral 
Ridge. It can also be seen along the road descending from Jef- 
ferson Hill to Bear Camp Run, where it is about 190 feet thick. 
There are also said to be limitless quantities of it along th^ Louis- 
ville, Henderson and St. Louis Railroad between Kathryn Station 
and the north side of Moremens Hill. 

Parts of it at least contain a considerable quantity ;of iron 
carbonate concretions. ] 

It is not quite as good as the New Providence shale, but 
has good plasticity and fires to a red color. It could be used 
for bricks and hollow blocks. (See Chap. V.) 

Chester Series. The Chester series of the Mississippian is 
made up of sandstones, shale and limestones which in western 
Kentucky have an aggregate thickness of 600-800 feet. 

In western Kentucky these rocks surround the coal field 
in a belt 5 to 10 miles wide, (Fig. 2), the area of outcrop lying 
between the Mammoth Cave limastone belt on the south and 
east, and the coal measures rocks of the Pennsylvaniar. - 


Since the last named are the youngest of the three series 
mentioned the Chester rocks at all points dip inward towards 
the center of the western coalfield. The Chester belt of out- 
crop is marked by poor agricultural land, which is in strong 
contrast to that underlain by the good soil of the Mammoth 
Cave limestone belt. A line connecting Russellville, Elkton, 
Hopkinsville and Princeton lies approximately along the south- 
em border of the Chester formations. The Chester sections on 
the eastern and western sides of the western coalfield are not 
identical, in fact that on the eastern side is appreciably thinner 
than that on the western but it contains the following deposits 
of shale that are well worthy of investigation. 

Ridenhower Shale, This is a soft bluish gray shale, which 
weathers to a bluish or greenish clay, that may contain some 
layers of calcareous sandstone or sandy limestone. (Ref. 3, 
p. 74.) 

Stratigraphically it lies between two sandstones known as 
the Bethel and Cypress or Big Clifty, and its full thickness is 
50 feet. As it weathers rather easily fresh sections are difficult 
to find, however. Butts notes one on the road to Siloam school 
at a point 3 miles west-southwest of Marion, Crittenden County. 
Here the full thickness of 50 feet or so is exposed in the ditch 
with the sandstones above and below. Butts says that while 
exposures of the fresh shale are rare its presence is almost every- 
where indicated in the topography by a shallow depression of 
the land surface between the two sandstones that lie respectively 
above and below it. 

On the eastern side of the coalfield in Hart and Hardin 
counties there are some clays underlying the Big Clifty sand- 
stone which may represent the Ridenhower shale. 

Buffalo Wallow Shales, On the eastern side of the western 
coalfield, from Breckenridge to Warren counties the subdivisions 
of the upper part of Chester formation from the Tar Springs 
sandstone upward are not as clearly divisible, and these are re- 
ferred to collectively as the Buflfalo Wallow formation, the name 
being derived from Buffalo Wallow, a cirque-like depression in 
these shales which is located on the highway 2 miles west of 
Cloverport, Kentucky. 


The Buffalo Wallow formation is made up chiefly of beds of 
soft bluish shale, but includes also red shale, together with some 
sandstone and limestone. It is a formation that should be pro- 
spected by clay workers for it seems capable of yielding a supply 
of red-burning clays of excellent character. 

At present it is worked only at Cloverport, Breckinridge 
County, where a beautiful red floor tile and roofing tile are 
manufactured from it. 

The Buffalo Wallow formation is overlain unconformably 
by the Pottsville conglomerate, but before this was deposited 
there was an interval during which the land surface was con- 
siderably eroded so that the Pottsville does not everywhere rest 
on the same division of the Buffalo Wallow formation, indeed 
to the south the Pottsville rests almost directly on the Mammoth 
Cave limestones which are below the Buffalo Wallow. 

Of considerable scientific interest, but of no probable com- 
mercial importance, is the so-called kaolin, which is found in the 
Buffalo Wallow formation just below the Pottsville in Hart, 
Hardin, Taylor and other counties. 

This material when pure and fresh consists of pockety 
masses of white clay, sometimes soft and powdery, at other times 
fairly hard, dense and resembling unglazed porcelain. It is 
identical with the Indianaite found immediately under the Potts- 
ville in Lawrence anl other counties of Indiana. In the latter 
state however the material occurs in much larger quantities than 
it does in Kentucky. At one place in the latter state bauxite 
and Wavellite have been found in small quantities associated 
with it, and this is the only locality in Kentucky where any 
bauxite has been noted. 

Chester Shales of Eastern Kentucky. The Chester occurs 
along the western border of the eastern coalfield, (Pig. 2), but h 
much thinner, probably not over 100 feet thick. It consists of 
both sandstones and shales. The outcrops are in a hilly region 
rather remote usually from lines of transportation and little is 
known regarding them. 

Pennsylvanian, The Pottsville, Allegheny, Conemaugh and 
Monongahela series of the Pennsylvanian are all recognized in 


The Pottsville or lower division of the Pennsylvanian con- 
sists chiefly of conglomerate or pebbly sandstone. It is found 
around the western coal field, and there is divisible into two 
parts, (Kef. 23, p. 154), with about 100 feet of shales separating 
them. Detailed information is not available regarding these 
shales, but those worked at Hawesville and Lampkin, Hanccock 
County, are probably of this age. 

In the eastern coal field the Pottsville carries one important 
deposit of fire clays in Boyd, Carter, Rowan and Elliott counties, 
and this is being worked at a number of points. Above this fire 
clay, there is an impure clay known as the huckleberry clay which 
may be available for pottery purposes. 

The formations of the Allegheny series are found in the 
eastern and western coalfields of Kentucky, and consist of shales, 
clays, sandstones, coals and some limestones. 

The shales may vary in their character, some being hard 
and gritty, others moderately soft and argillaceous. Not a few 
are too carbonaceous to be utilized in the manufacture of clay 

The best types are those which are argillaceous and relative- 
ly free from carbonaceous matter. 

Western Coalfield, Little use has been made of the Al- 
legheny shales in this area, except at Madisonville where the 
soft and somewhat weathered shale is used in the manufacture 
of brick and tile. Tests made on other samples from this vicinity 
indicate that they can be used in addition for hollow blocks and 
probably stoneware. Some of the coals as shown in Chapter IV 
are underlain by shales of plastic and red-burning character, 
but thus far practically no refractory clays have been found 
in- the western coalfield. 

Eastern Coalfield. The most important clay or shale .de- 
posit in the Allegheny series of the eastern coalfield is a bed 
of plastic fire clay, which occurs at the horizon of the Ferriferous 
or Vanport limestone, in parts of Carter and Boyd counties. It 
is not as refractory as the flint and semihard clay found in the 
PottsviUe, but is entirely satisfactory for use in fire brick mix- 
tures. It at times contains lenses of flint clay. One objection 
to the material is that it apparently does not always show ref rac- 


tory qualities over large areas. In other words the fire clay may 
grade into nonrefractory material. 

This clay is worked at Hitchins and Denton, Carter County, 
and at Ashland, Boyd County. Mines have been opened at 
other localities but they are idle at the present time. 

A widely distributed flint clay is found associated with what 
is known as the Upper Mercer, No. 4, or Fire clay coal. It 
forms a most persistent parting in this coal bed, but is never over 
a few inches in thickness, and hence where found is of no com- 
mercial value. 

The Allegheny series may also carry shales, some of which as 
those tested from between Olive Hill and Grayson in Carter 
County or from Torchlight in Lawrence County make an excel* 
lent buff brick. 

Miller states that in the eastern coalfield the Conemaugh 
division of the Pennsylvanian forms the surface formation in 
parts of eastern Lawrence and Boyd counties, and there con- 
tains a prevalence of red and purple shales, some of which might 
be suited for the manufacture of clay products. 

Tertiary, Clays of undoubted Tertiary age are found in 
the Purchase region of Kentucky. Most of these occur as lenses 
in the Lagrange formation and are actively worked to supply 
ball, and sagger clays for use in the manufacture of white pot- 
tery ware, electrical porcelain, wall and floor tile, glass refrac- 
tories, etc. Some are worked near Pottertown, in Calloway 
County, and Bell City, Graves County, for stoneware manu- 
facture. The Porters Creek formation of the Tertiary is worked 
at Briensburg, Marshall County, to supply stoneware clays. 

The most important developments are the clay pits at 
Pryorsburg, south of Mayfield, Graves County, worked since 
1891, and a number of smaller operations clustered to the west 
of Hickory and Viola, in the district north of Mayfield. These 
two groups of pits supply clays of the ball and sagger type. 

Several other pits are operated at Wickliflfe, Ballard 

In addition to the Purchase clays there are a number of 
isolated deposits of stoneware clay belonging to the Irvine for- 
mation which is also regarded as Tertiary in age. These are 



worked around Waco and Bybee in Madison County, and used 
for stoneware and blue art pottery. 

Pleistocene, In addition to the surface loams of the Colum- 
bian formation which are abundant in the Purchase region this 
includes a number of clay deposits of alluvial character found 
underlying terraces along the rivers. The most extensive are 
those along the Ohio River, but additional ones occur along the 
Licking, Tradewater, Green, and other streams. They represent 
a widely used source of material for many brick and tile plants. 
Among them are to be included those at Paducah, Maysville, 
Sturgis, West Point, Ashbyburg, Henderson, etc. 

Residual Clays. Geologically these are of very recent age, 
although they may have been formed by the weathering of rock 
formations of different ages. Such clays are derived from the 
decay of either shales of limestones, the sandstones not yielding 
this material unless they are very clayey or feldspathic. 

Clays of the residual type are to be found in practically 
all parts of the state. They are all ferruginous and hence burn to 
a red color. In regions w^here there is nothing but limestone 
they are the only source of plastic material available to the clay 
worker. They have been utilized for brick manufacture at 
Whitner southeast of Louisville, Jefferson County; at Lexing- 
ton, Fayette County, and at Nicholas ville, Jessamine County. 
All of these have been formed by the weathering of limestone. 

The product made from them is usually common brick. 



The investigation of a clay in the laboratory may include 
both chemical analyses and physical tests. 

If a clay is to be used in the manufacture of burned clay 
products, chemical analyses are rarely of any value because they 
show practically nothing regarding its physical characters. If 
it were known that all the substances shown by the chemical 
analysis were uniformly distributed through the clay and in- 
timately blended, then it might be safe to make some deductions 
regarding such properties as the fusibility, and color-burning 
qualities, but in the absence of evidence, interpretations are 
not always safe. 

Perhaps one of the safest deductions to make, is that re- 
garding a positive refractory character. That is to say, if a clay 
contains a low total content of fluxing impurities it may be re- 
garded as a fire clay. 

The physical properties, which are all-important in the 
use of a clay, must be determined separately. These properties 
include plasticity, water of plasticity, shrinkage, fineness, trans- 
verse strength, bonding strength, slaking test, vitrification, color 
after firing, and fusion. 


This is the property by virtue of which a wet clay can be 
molded into any desired shape, which shape it retains when dry. 
There is no satisfactory means thus far known for accurately 
measuring the plasticity. With experience a person can tell 
the different degrees of plasticitj'', and express them by such 
terms as high, good, fair and low. Excessive plasticity may 
be as undesirable sometimes, as a deficiency of this property. 
It can be reduced by the addition of non-plastic material such 
as sand. If a clay is deficient in plasticity it may crack in the 
molding, or at times be difficult to form, especially with ma- 
chinery. Excessive plasticity is liable to cause high shrinkage, 
accompanied by warping and cracking. 


Water op Plasticity 

In order to render a clay plastic it is necessary to add a 
certain amount of water, the quantity to be added varying with 
diiferent clays. Clays of high plasticity in general require a 
high percentage of water, while clays of low plasticity or lean 
ones take the minimum quantity of water. It is also found that 
the amount needed is not always a fixed quantity, but for some 
clays may vary between rather wide limits, this being especially 
true of highly plastic clays. 

A simple method for determining this consists in weighing 
a lump of the clay that has been worked up with water, drying 
it thoroughly in an air bath at llO'^C. and weighing again. The 
per cent of water lost is calculated in terms of the weight of dry 
clay. This gives the water of plasticity. 


After a clay has been worked up with water to a plastic 
mass, and is set aside to dry the water begins to evaporate, and 
during this process the particles of the clay draw closer together 
until they are in contact. The shrinkage thus produced is called 
the air shrinkage. Even after it ceases there may still be water 
in the spaces between the clay grains and this can only be driven 
out by heating to constant weight at 110**C. This latter is the 
pore water. That lost during air shrinkage Ls the shrinkage 
matter. The sum of the two is the matter of plasticity. 

Clays of high plasticity, usually show a high air shrinkage, 
on account of their high water-of -plasticity content. Lean clays 
show a low air shrinkage. 

Excessive air shrinkage is undesirable as it is Ikely to be 
accompaned by warping and cracking of the clay. 

The air shrinkage may be expressed in terms of length or 
volume of the test piece. If the former it is stated in percentage 
terms of the length of the test piece as molded. If the latter, it 
is expressed in percentage terms of the dry volume. Since the 
linear shrinkage when measured on diflPerent sides of a test brick, 
or in different directions, is not always exactly the same, it is 
sometimes considered best for accurate work to determine the 
volume shrinkage. 


When the clay is fired it undergoes an additional decrease 
in size known as the fire shrinkage, and this reaches its maximum 
when the clay reaches a condition of maximum density. Beyond 
this the fire shrinkage decreases due to swelling of the clay. 

The fire shrinkage may also be expressed as linear or by 
volume, the latter in terms of the dried clay. 


When making a complete test of high-grade clays the fine- 
ness of the material is sometimes determined. The larger-sized 
particles may be separated by means of sieves, but the smaller 
ones can be separated by some method of elutriation or wash- 

The fineness may affect the different physical properties 

Transverse Strength 

The transverse strength of a clay is determined by shaping 
it in bars 1 inch square and 8 inches long. These are thoroughly 
and carefully dried, and then broken by placing them on sup- 
ports 6 inches apart, and applying a load on top of the bar at 
a point midway between the supports. As the bars vary some 
in their cross section after drying, it is necessary to express their 
strength in some unit term which is known as the modulus of rup- 

This is calculated from the formula: 

^~ — 2 b h" in which 

R — modulus of rupture 

1 — distance between supports 

w — weight required to break the bar 

b — width of bar 

h — height of bar. 

Clays of high plasticity usually show a good modulus of 
rupture. Good strength enables the clay also to stand rougher 
handling in its dried condition. 

Bonding Strength 
This is determined by making bars consisting of a mixture 
of equal parts of clay and standard sand. The transverse 
strength of these is tested as described above, and the effect of 
the addition of sand on the modulus of rupture noted. 


The practical bearing of the test is this. The manufacturer 
of pottery, crucibles, glass pots and other wares may add 40 
or more per cent of non-plastic material to his clay in order to 
reduce the shrinkage and tendency to warp and crack. If the 
clay is of high bonding power it may stand the addition of con- 
siderable non-plastic material without having its transverse 
strength reduced too low. Some cl«ays show an increased 
strength with sand added. The test is chiefly of value in the case 
of refracJtory bond clays. 

Slaking Test 

This may be made by placing thoroughly dried one inch 
cubes of the clay in water and noting the time required for 
them to slake down completely. Strong clays require a longer 
time to slake than weak or lean ones. 


This is carried out by firing test pieces slowlj'^ to successively 
higher temperatures. After each firing the porosity of the clay 
is determined. As the pores of the clay close up with progress- 
ing fusion the porosity decreases, and theoretically becomes zero 
when the point of maximum density is reached. Beyond this 
point the clays swells, and its porosity again increases. The 
point at which this change takes place indicates the beginning 
of overfiring. 

In some clays the temperature interval between the at- 
tainment of a condition of maximum density or vitrification, 
and the temperature of overfiring is short, and such clays are said 
to have a short firing range. Highly calcareous clays show this. 

In others the temperature interval between the two points 
mentioned is large, and the firing range is said to be long. Such 
clays are best adapted to the manufacture of vitrified wares. 

Instead of determining the porosity it is easier and often 
customary to determine the absorption. It is not quite as ac- 
curate, but often sufficiently so for commercial purposes. 


CoTX)R After FnoNa 

This is always noted as it has an important bearing on the 
use to which a clay can be put. It is especially important to 
the manufacturer of whiteware who requires clays that will 
fire to a white body. 


The hardness of a clay after firing is usually determined 
by noting whether or not it can be scratched with a knife. If the 
point of a knife will not scratch it, the clay is said to be steel 


The fusion point of a clay can be made by molding the ma- 
terial into small cones of standard size, and noting the tempera- 
ture at which the clay has softened sufficiently so that it will 
bend over until the tip touches the base. Or it can be placed 
in the furnace with standard cones, and its fusion point be ex- 
pressed in terms of these. The latter method especially is gen- 
erally used for fire clays. The standard or Seger cones repre- 
sent a series of mixtures whose theoretic fusion points cover a 
considerable range of temperature. They are not to be used for 
temperature measurements, since the fusion point is affected by 
the condition of the kiln atmosphere. They are, however, con- 
sistent with each other. The theoretic fusion points differ by 
intervals of 20° C. Thus cone 010= 950° C; cone 05= 1050° C; 
cone !•== 1150° C, and so on. 

The Requisite Qualities op Clays for Different Purposes 

Clays vary greatly in their physical properties, and it is 
upon this that their use for different purposes depends. More- 
over let it be understood that the clay employed for a certain 
purpose may often show an appreciable range of certain char- 
acteristics, and furthermore that two different clays might when 
used alone be of little value for making a certain type of ware, 
but if mixed together would serve admirably, because of the 
blending of their physical properties. 


The geoeral characters of a clay required for the more im- 
portant uses to whieli it can be put are given below. 

Common Brick Clays 
Almost any red-burning clay that is sufficiently plastic to 
mold can be used in the manufacture of brick, provided it does 
not show excessive shrinkage which would cause it to warp and 
crack in drying and burning, and also provided it fires to a 
hard body at a moderate temperature. It should also be free 
from pebbles or concretions, especially of carbonate of lime, 
as the latter after firing tend to air slake and swell, thus splitting 
the brick (Fig. 3). Sand is sometimes added to brick clays to 

Fig. 3. Bricks Bpllt by lumps ot limestoDe, chaiiKed to quicklime In flrlns- 
reduce their shrinkage. If the clay contains pebbles or other 
stony material in large amounts these are sometimes removed 
by rolls, or crushed before the clay is fed to the machine. The 
clay should also burn steel hard or nearly so at a temperature 
of about 1000°C. Large lumps of gypsum are objectionable, but 
small piceies are not injurious. 

Cream-burning calcareous clays may also be used for com- 
mon brick if their other physical properties are satisfactory. 

An absorption of over 15^4 after firing is usually undesira- 


Drain Tile Clays 

Drain tile are manufactured from red-burning clays of 
good plasticity. The proper plasticity is necessary as they have 
to be molded in a sti£E-mud machine. They should be free from 
coarse impurities, and fire to a steel hard body at a low tempera- 
ture, as 1000° or 1050° C. without excessive shrinkage. The 
clays resemble common brick clays, but are usually smoother. 

At some plants the same clay may be used for common 
brick and drain tile, or one part of the bank may be used for 
one, and another portion of the bank for the other, as it is not 
uncommon to find that the different beds in a clay or shale bank 
may vary somewhat in their shrinkage and plasticity. 

Fac?k Brick 

Several types of clay are used for this purpose, as follows: 

1. Bed-burning clays, of proper plasticity, free both from 
coarse impurities or sufficient soluble salts to form a white scum. 
The color after firing should be a good red, and the brick should 
be steel hard. They may be fired at from 1000° to 1100° C. 
The same type of clay is also used for making rough-texture 

2. Low-grade fire clays which burn to a buff color, and 
otherwise have the same physical properties as the preceding 
type. Both grades should possess good transverse strength, 
showing a modulus of rupture preferably of at least 150 lbs., 
although it may run much higher. 

3. Cream-burning calcareous clays. None of this type are 
used in Kentucky. 

Paving Brick 

These are commonly made of red-burning clays or shales 
possessing sufficient plasticity to mold well in a stiff-mud ma- 
chine. They should have moderate air and fire shrinkage, and 
a sufficiently long firing range to permit their being fired to 
a ware that is vitrified or nearly so. Low-grade fire clays are 
sometimes employed. 


Seweb Pipe 

The kinds of clays and shales employed for this purpose 
are similar to those used for paving brick, but the clay is not 
always fired to a well-vitrified body, as the salt glaze which is 
applied during burning is relied on to close up the pores in the 
surface of the ware. All clays or shales will not salt glaze equal- 
ly well, and even if the material does take the glaze, an excess of 
soluble salts may prevent it; consequently the clay should be 
free from these defects. 

Fine grain, and thorough grinding are essential, as well as 
freedom from concretions of pyrite, siderite or lime carbonate. 

The clay should show a moderate shrinkage, freedom from 
warping and cracking in drying and burning, and give a steel 
hard body. 

At some works a mixture of low-grade fire clay and a red- 
burning shale are used. 

Hooping Tile 

These are commonly made from red-burning clays, of 
smooth texture, good plasticity, and capable of developing a 
steel-hard body at moderate temperature. On account of the 
flat shape of the tile and relative thinness of the body it is ex- 
ceedingly important that the clay should show no tendency to 
warp or crack during the process of manufacture, and this calls 
for moderate shrinkage. The transverse strength should also be 
good, not less than 150 lbs. per sq. in. Unglazed tile should be 
steel hard and of low absorption, but not necessarily vitrified. 
Glazed tile while usually made of red-burning clays, are not 
always fired as dense as unglazed ones, but should be steel hard. 
The glaze whether dull or bright protects them from absorption 
of moisture. 

In all cases the clay should be as free as possible from solu- 
ble salts. The clay which is used at Cloverport makes an ex- 
cellent red tile at a comparatively low temperature. 


Floor Tile 

Two types of clay are used for tliis purpose, viz. : red-burn- 
ing and white-burning clays. Red floor tile of different shapes 
and sizes, up to 6 inches square are made from a clay similar 
to that used for roofing tile. It is very essential that they fire 
to a dense hard body, not only for the purpose of resisting 
abrasion but also to prevent absorption of moisture. Porous 
tile should never be used in a floor. 

White floor tile are never made from a natural mixture. 
They are manufactured from an artificial mixture of white- 
burning clays, ground flint, and ground feldspar, so compounded 
as to fire to a hard vitrified body. Artificial coloring agents 
may be added to give tile of blue, green and other colors. These 
too should be vitrified. 

White Earthenware and Porcelain 

These are made from artificial mixtures of kaolin, ball clay, 
ground fiint and ground feldspar, so compounded that the body 
is steel hard but porous in the case of white earthenware, and 
vitrified in the case of porcelain. The body is fired first, glazed, 
and fired a second time. 

The kaolin, of which none is found in Kentucky, is white 
burning, highly refractory, of fair to good plasticity, and 
usually low to moderate transverse strength. Its bonding power 
is not high. 

The best ball clays burn to a white or faint creamy white 
body at cone 9, and have excellent plasticity. They usually 
have good transverse strength and bonding power, the former 
ranging from 187 to 387 lbs. per square inch, and the latter 
from 199 to 389 in a number of standard varieties tested. 

The water of plasticity of a number ranges from 37.6% 
to 50.8%. The linear air shrinkage from 5.5% to 7.3%. 



The following changes in porosity are also given by Parme- 

2010' F. 2100** F. 2190 •» F. 2300** F; 

1099** C. 1115** C. 1199** C. 1260** C. 

% % % % 

BngUsh Ball Olay 1.99 .19 .68 .5 

English Ball Clay 3.4 1.28 .90 .9 

Tennessee Ball Clay 27.5 19.10 8.1 .7 

Tennefis«e Bal Clay 22.3 16.40 8.4 2.4 

Tennessee Ball Clay 20.7 13.90 3.7 2.3 

Kentucky Ball Clay 19.0 12.70 13 1.3 

The two following tests taken from Parmelee's report give 
the linear shrinkage of several Tennessee ball clays. 

I. n. III. IV. 

% % % % 

1050** C 25 2.50 Cone 2 11.4 9.76 

1125** C 2.21 6.66 Cone 6 15.7 14.2 

1200** C 2.08 9.75 Cone 9 16.3 15.3 

1320** C 4.63 13.50 Cone 12 17.6 16.5 

Sagger Clays 

These are plastic, refractory clays of low shrinkage, and 
rather open-burning qualities, which are used for making sag- 
gers ; receptacles in white ware and other high-grade wares are 
placed during burning, in order to protect them from the kiln 
gases and dirt. They do not have to be white burning. For 
making saggers a mixture of several clays and ground up old 
saggers may be used. 

Wad Clays ~ 

These are non-refractory, siliceous clays, which are used 
for filling the joints between saggers when they are set one on 
top of the other in the kiln. 

•Resources of Tennessee, Vol. IX, No. 2, 1919. 

•Total linear shrinkage. Linear air shrinkasre III is 7.6 per cent, and 
of IV, 6.1 per cent. 


Refractory Bond Clays 

Refractory bond clay is a refractory clay which has even 
greater strength than a ball clay, and may burn dense at 1250° C. 
or even less. It is not necessary that the clay bum white. Such 
clays are used in glass refractories, graphite crucibles, abrasive 
wheels, etc, 

Bleininger* suggests two classes, viz. A, Those showing a 
modulus of rupture of 325 lbs. per sq. in. or more, and B. Those 
whose modulus of rupture is between 225 and 325 pounds. The 
ratio of pore to shrinkage water should in no case exceed 1.00 
for clays of the A type. For strong, heavy plastic clays, low in 
free silica, the ratio should not exceed .75, but some German 
siliceous bond clays, that have been much used, are not able to 
meet this requirement. 

In burning, the overfiring temperature and the softening 
point are the principal criteria. For very severe service the 
clay should not develop a definite vesicular structure below 
1425° C, nor a softening point below cone 31, but as Bleininger 
says, this specification may not be fair to some plastic clays, 
that are of use in the manufacture of graphite crucibles, espec- 
ially for brass melting, although even for this purpose the tem- 
perature of overfiring should not be much below 1400° and 
the softening temperature not much below that of cone 30. 
Anything below these requirements should be ruled out as a 
bond clay. Bleininger suggests the following grouping of re- 
fractory bond clays according to their uses : 

1. Clays specially suited for making graphite crucibles 
used for brass melting. They should burn dense at 1150° C. 
and show no evidence of overfiring at 1400° C. and have other re- 
quired physical properties. 

2. Clays for crucibles for melting steel. Should bum 
dense around 1275° C. and not overfire at 1400° C. or higher. 

2a. Same as 2, but not overfire before 1425° C. These are 
valuable also for glass refractories. 

•American Ceramic Society, Transactions, Vol. XIX, p. 601, 1917. 


3. Clays especially suited for use in glass refractories. 
Those becoming dense only at 1425° C. or even higher, and not 
overfiring until 1450° C. 

Of no value are those clays becoming dense anywhere be- 
tween 1150° C. and 1300°, and showing either no range between 
these temperatures and overfiring, or only a short one. 

The following figures give the properties of two Kentucky 
clays from the Purchase region as stated by Bleininger. 

I. Described as very plastic, lacking in bonding power, as 
might be inferred also from the high ratio of pore to shrinkage 
water, viz. 1.05. The clay vitrifies to a dense structure at 
1260° C, and remains quite constant to 1425° C, when it begins 
to overfire. Its refractoriness, cone 32, is satisfactory. It could 
be used in conjunction with a stronger clay as a bonding ma- 
terial for crucibles but would hardly be suitable for this pur- 
pose alone. It might be used in glass refractories with other 
clays of somewhat different properties. The high porosity of 
the clay at 1050° C, viz. 37 per cent, is indicative of its open 
structure in the dried state and explains the ready disintegra- 
tion of the raw claj" in water. 

II. This day has excellent working qualities and good 
strength. Its shrinkage water content is very high, being 77.4 
per cent in terms of the true clay volume. Its pore-shrink- 
age water ratio is .71. It burns to complete vitrification at 
1290°C. and begins to overfire at 1400° C. but this change is a 
gradual one. Its fusion point is cone 32. The clay is conse- 
quently an excellent bond clay especially suitable for steel melt- 
ing crucibles and glass refractories. 


I. II. 

% % 

Water in terms of dry weight _ 45.28 50.85 

Water in terms of true clay volume 117.60 132.5 

Shrinkage water in terms of true clay volxune 57.20 77.4 

Pore water in terms of true clay volume 60.40 56.1 

Ratio pore water to shrinkage water 1.06 .71 

Shrinkage by volume in terms of dry clay volume.... 34.63 46.80 

Time of slaking, minutes 9. 36.5 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 239. 359. 

Modulus of rupture, 1 clay; 1 sand, lbs. per sq. in 234. 362. 

1060* C. Porosity 37.09 37.80 

Volume shrinkage 11.49 13.05 

1076* C. Porosity 33.90 30.90 

Volume shrinkage 16.83 22.70 

1100* C. Porosity 26.02 22.28 

Volume shrinkage 26.80 30.23 

1125* C. Porosity 21.25 18.25 

Volume shrinkage 30.90 33 30 

1160* C. Porosity 17.83 16.48 

Volume shrinkage 34.21 33.25 

1176* C. Porosity 17.06 13.90 

Volume shrinkage 36.40 34.70 

1200* C. Porosity 12.96 8.43 

Volume shrinkage 37.01 37.60 

1230* C. Porosity 6.13 3.46 

Volume shrinkage 39.00 39.02 

1260* C. Porosity 19 2.45 

Volume shrinkage 41.20 40.55 

1290* C. Porosity 81 .98 

Volume shrinkage 41.76 41.26 

1320* C. Porosity 97 1.18 

Volume shrinkage 42.76 41.26 

1350* C. Porosity 81 1.48 

Volume shrinkage 42.60 42.02 

1400* C. Porosity 96 .84 

Volume shrinkage 42.80 40.80 

1426* C. Porosity ^ 33 2.76 

Volume shrinkage 42.10 S9.76 

1460* C. Porosity 3.30 6.00 

Volume shrinkage 37.62 37.90 

1476* C. Porosity 4.88 

Volume shrinkage 32.90 

1600* C. Porosity 7.13 4.85 

Volume shrinkage 35.60 

Overflred at 1460* 1460* 

Cone of fusion 32 32 



This portion of the state of Kentucky which lies west of the 
Tennessee River contains both high-grade clays used in the man- 
ufacture of whiteware, abrasives, crucibles, glasspots, stone- 
ware, etc., and the lower grades of clay of value only for the 
manufacture of common brick and drain tile. 

The Purchase region is underlain by a series of sand and 
clay formations of Tertiary age, which are known as Porters 
Creek and Lagrange and have a gentle dip to the westward, the 
clay being often in the form of lenses. Resting on top of this 
series of Tertiary beds is a deposit of ferruginous gravel know^n 
as the Lefayette formation which is also of Tertiary age and 
forms the overburden in most of the clay pits of Graves and Cal- 
loway counties. 

On top of the Lafayette is a loamy and gravelly deposit 
of Quaternary age often referred to as the Columbian loam. It 
is usually iron stained and of no ceramic value except for the 
manufacture of common brick and tile. 

Lastly there are flood-plain clays which are found under- 
lying terraces bordering the rivers. The best deposits of these 
are those occuring along the Ohio River at Paducah. 

The Porters Creek formation is 10-12 miles wide in Callo- 
way County, but then as it extends northward towards Paducah 
the outcrop narrows, and the formation is concealed by alluvial 
deposits of the Ohio River before it reaches the northern bound- 
ary of the state. 

In Kentucky the formation carries clay which has been 
opened up at several localities in Marshall County, and while 
the material is not of as high grade as the Lagrange clay ob- 
tained in Graves County, it can nevertheless be used in stone- 
ware manufacture and for wad clay. The pits are located near 
Benton and Briensburg. 

The Lagrange formation which overlies the Porters Creek 
stratigraphically, and hence outcrops to the westward of it, 
carries higher-grade clays, many of them being white or creamy 


white after firing. Indeed the Lagrange is one of the most im- 
portant clay-bearing formations of the Southern States, the 
product from the pits of Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi 
having an enviable reputation. 

The deposits of the Lagrange include a series of clayey 
and sandy sediments which have been deposited in estuaries 
and in shallow water oflf shore during Tertiary times. They 
hence change from point to point. The sands are usually cross- 
bedded and sometimes ferruginous, while the lenses of clay, 
which are often large, are white, pink, brown, black or other 
colors, and range from materials which are so smooth and fine 
as to contain scarcely any grit to others which are rather sandy. 
A deposit of clay 25 feet thick may sometimes show beds of 4 or 
5 different grades. Moreover the section seen in a given pit 
may vary from year to year as shown in the case of the pit at 
Pryorsburg. Beds of lignite may also be present but they are 
not as a rule more than a foot thick.^ 

The eastern border of the Lagrange formation in Kentucky 
passes through southwestern Calloway, northeastern Graves, 
middle McCracken and northern Ballard counties. It then 
swings westward into Pulaski County, Illinois. 

At present the high-grade clay pits in the Lagrange have 
been developed only in the vicinity of Pryorsburg and Hickory. 
It seems not improbable however that there may be many others 
which cannot be profitably worked at present because they are 
too far away from the railroad and the roads are not good enough 
for long truck hauls. 

There was not time to make a thorough investigation of 
all the unworked deposits in the Purchase region, and so exami- 
nations had to be confined to the active pits, and those deposdts 
which were brought to our notice. In addition there have been 
included tests of other deposits that have been published. 

Ballard County 

The occurrence of high-grade clays in the vicinity of Wick- 
liffe was mentioned by the Kentucky Geological Survey in 1888, 
and the deposits have been worked in a small way for some years. 

•An exception to this rule Is the deposit overlying the clay at Pryors- 


All of the openings are small and located close to the town of 

W. T. White has opened some pits about 2/5 of a mine south 
of Wickliflfe. 

The section measured in one showed: 

Ft In. 

Sandy clay 4 

Black clay 8-10 

Light gray sandy clay 10 

The other showed : 

Ft. In. 

Tellow-stained clay 2 

White sand 6 

Sandy clay - 5 

Black clay 3 

These two pits are controlled by the LaClede-Christy Clay 
Company of the St. Louis. 

The American Clay Company of Muncie, Ind., has several 
openings about y^ iiiile northeast of Wickliffe. 

The section in one of these measured in 1918, showed: 


Gravelly overburden 3-7 

Lignite %-2 

Clay 12% 

The clays are sorted into several grades and used in glass- 
pot manufacture. Some of the clay obtained from here has a 
composition similar to the well-known Gross Almerode glasspot 
clay of Germany, but it is said to show a higher shrinkage and is 
softer when fired. 

The pits were not very active during the season of 1921. 

The following tests have been made by Easton, (Ref. 10, 
pp. 758-769), of some Ballard County clays. 

1. Gray clay, southern part of Wickliffe, forming a bed 
15 feet thick with a 2-foot layer of lignite. The amount of over- 
burden is not stated. The properties given are : Plasticity, ex- 
cellent; air shrinkage, 10% ; fire shrinkage, 16% ; cone of vitri- 
fication, 6 ; color fired, greenish yellow. 


2. Ilarkless place, just north of Wickliffe. Clay dark 
gray; plasticity', high; air shrinkage, 7^; fire shrinkage, T^fc; 
cone of vitrification, 8; color fired, pale yellow. 

3. William Henderson place, 1 mile north of Wickliffe. 
Clay 7 feet thick, with 20 feet overburden. Color, light gray. 
Plasticity, high; air shrinkage, 5^; fire shrinkage, 55^; vitri- 
fication, above cone 11 ; color fired, white. 

4. Property of C. Brown and ^Irs. E. Linderman, 3 miles 
east of Blandville. Air shrinkage, 4^; fire shrinkage, 9%; 
vitrification, above cone 9; color fired, light buff. 

5. One mile northeast of Blandville. A 10-foot bed of clay 
overlain by 42 feet of gravel and loam. Air shrinkage, 7%; 
fire shrinkage, 5%; vitrification, a little above cone 9; color 
fired, cream. 

6. Samuels farm, 4 miles south of Blandville. Gray plastic 
clay, w^ith 4 feet exposed, and 9 feet overburden. Air shrink- 
age, 5%; fire shrinkage, 2^; vitrification, about cone 9; color 
fired, gray white. 

CaijLoway County 

The high-grade clays of this county have been but little 
developed, some of those known being at present rather remote- 
ly located with respect to the railroad. 

Ball and sagger clays are being dug just across the Ken- 
tucky-Tennessee line southwest of Crossland, Ky., but there are 
no active pits within the county itself, except those worked for 

The following localities were noted in the field : 
Cherry, White and yellow clay occurs on the land of P. 
E. Stubblefield, 6 miles east of Murray and IV^, ^^^i^^s southeast 
of Cherry P. 0. It shows up as pockets outcropping along the 
branch at the head of Panther Creek, the outcrops extending for 
over a hundred yards. The overburden is from 5 to 8 feet of 
loam and gravel, and it is claimed that the clay has been tested 
to a depth of 10 feet. The clay is thinly laminated and some 
of it is quite sandy. It also contains a thin bed of lignite. An 
apparent objection is the seeming irregularity of the clay. From 
the few tests that were made of it the material seems better 


than a stoneware clay, but is probably not a high-grade ball 
clay. The material (Lab. No. 2436) has good plasticity and 
6% linear aii: shrinkage. It fires to a creani white at the lower 
temperatures and becomes gray at 1430"C, with 6% fire shrink- 
age and 1.8^ absorption. 

Clay outcrops on the farm of B. D. Grogan, 3 miles south- 
east of Cherry, the gullies along the wagon road showing a light 
gray clay which appears to be fairly constant in character. Scat- 
tered through it are red specks, but these according to the pot* 
ter at Pottertown do not affect its firing qualities for stoneware. 
The general section exposed is : 


Loam 4 

Gravel 2 

Clay exposed 4-7 

This is one of the most promising outcrops seen southeast 
of Murray, but at present haulage conditions are not good 
enough to permit its being worked. The following partial test 
of this clay (Lab. No. 2430) gives an indication of its character: 

Air shrinkage (linear) 5% 

Plasticity Very good 

Color after firing pinkish up to 1250° C. and gray at 1430° C. 

Fire shrinkage 

linear Absorption 

% % 
950° C 

1070° C 2 16.6 

1250° C 5 9.1 

1430° C 7.5 0. 

It may be useful in stoneware, saggers, sanitary ware, or 
other purposes where a similar type of clay is required. It does 
not fire white enough for a ball clay. 

Murray, Easton has described several other occurrences 
(Ref. 10, p. 771) near Murray as follows: 

1. W. K. Rus-sell place, 6 miles east of Murray. Thick- 
ness 4-10 feet ; used for stoneware ; plasticity good ; color after 
firing, cream white; air shrinkage, 8%; fire shrinkage, 6%; 
vitrified at cone, 9 j average tensile strength, 65 lbs. per. sq. inch. 

C of K—2 


2. A. B. Edwards place, 8 miles northwest of Murray on 
the road to Mayfield; clay exposed 5 feet thick, but amount of 
overburden not stated. Air shrinkage, 5% ; fire shrinkage, 10^ ; 
color after firing, gray white; vitrifies at cone, 9. The test of 
this clay shows appreciably more shrinkage than the preceding. 

3. On Nashville, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad prop- 
erty, one-half mile south of Murray, clay exposed, 10 feet; air 
shrinkage, 8%; fire shrinkage, 19%; average tensile strength, 
69 lbs. per sq. in. ; color after firing, dark red ; vitrifies at cone, 
11. The clay is of no value for high-grade wares, and its fire 
shrinkage at vitrification is too high. 

The following additional occurrences were seen by Mr. 
Hodson, but they are at present too far from the railroad to 
warrant development. 

On the Lynnhart farm, 12 miles southeast of Mayfield, 
numerous pockets of clay show along the creek bottoms. The 
clay in places is very light colored and sandy, but in others it is 
very smooth. There is 4 to 5 feet of gravelly overburden. 

The best exposures of the clay are along the creek bottom 
about 1/4 mile southwest of E. C. Youngblood's house. Un- 
fortunately the deposit is located too far from the railroad to be 
workable at present, if it should prove to be of workable quantity, 
and of satisfactory quality. The land in part surrounding the 
deposit is said to have been leased some years ago by a com- 
pany in Ohio, but they have never worked the deposits. This 
property also adjoins the clay property controlled by the United 
States Clay Company, but this firm too has not done any de- 

On the J. E. Chapman property which is located one mile 
northeast of Lynnhart 's, and also 12 miles from Mayfield, a 
bank has been opened showing lenses of a grayish-black pottery 
clay. Other exposures are to be seen in the surrounding gullies. 
While Mayfield is the nearest railway station to this locality, 
Murray is the more accessible. 

A sample (Lab. No. 2479) from the Flower property, near 
Murray, Calloway County, was given a partial test. It shows 
good plasticity with a linear air shrinkage of 5%. At 1330** C. 
it fired to a steel hard, cream-colored body, with 3.5^ fire 


shrinkage and 6.3% absorption. It does not burn white enough 
for a good ball clay but might be used in saggers. 

A partial test of the Lynnhart Clay (Lab. No. 2435) indi- 
cates that it is a white clay of good plasticity, but not white burn- 
ing. It fires to a cream color, and at 1430'C is gray and vitri- 
fied with lO^o fire shrinkage. The material is too far from 
the railroad to be utilized at present. 

Pottertown. There is one pottery in operation in Calloway 
County. This is run by Falwell and Son at Pottertown, with 
Almo as the postoffice address. The product consists of com- 
mon stoneware. 

The clay is hauled by trucks from pits located to the south of 
Pottertown, but it is not considered to be as satisfactory as that 
in the old Russell pits which are near the pottery and which 
have recently been purchased from "W. D. Russell who used to 
operate the plant. 

The Russell pits which will be drawn upon in the future 
contain two grades of clay. One is very smooth and resembles 
a ball clay while the other one is more sandy and has a lower 
shrinkage as well as being easier to work. The two grades are 
mixed in about equal proportions. 

The ware which includes crocks, jugs, urns, and other stone- 
ware articles is thrown on a wheel, and fired in a small circular 
down-draft kiln. The body of the ware which is dense, steel 
hard and of light-buff color, is covered with a glaze of Albany 

The product finds a ready market in the surrounding coun- 
try, being distributed by auto truck. 

Carlisle County 

No clays have been developed in Carlisle County. 

The following partial tests are given by Easton (Ref. 10, 
p. 773) but nothing is known regarding the extent of the de- 

1. One mile northeast of Laketon, on Marion Hogencamp 
place. Clay 6 feet thick. Air shrinkage, 7%; fire shrinkage, 
9%; tensile strength, lbs. per. sq. in., 134; vitrified, cone 11; 
color when fired, pink. 


2. Pour miles northeast of Milburn, Mrs. E. J. Carrieo 
property. Clay, sandy; air shrinkage, 8.3^; fire shrinkage, 
4.6^ ; tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in., 164.5; vitrifies at cone 5; 
color when fired, buff. 

3. Two and one-half miles north of Laketon on Dr. T. S. 
Terreirs place. Clay, plastic; air shrinkage, 9%; fire shrink- 
age, 5% ; tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in , 197.5; cone of vitrifi- 
cation, 9 ; color when fired, buff at lower cones, gray at higher 

4. Three miles north of Buckley on William Reynolds 
place, clay 8 feet thick and very plastic. Air shrinkage, 9%; 
fire shrinkage, 5^o; tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in., 112.6; cone 
6, color pink, turned yellow at cone 9. 

Fulton County 

There is no clay industry developed in this county. 

Easton (Ref. 10. p. 793) notes a clay occurring in the Mis- 
sissippi bluffs on the north side of town along the Nashville, 
Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad, which has a maximum over- 
burden of 45 feet. The clay is very plastic, with 9% air shrink- 
age and a tensile strength of 206 lbs. per sq. in. It has no grit. 
In firing the clay becomes yellow at cone 1, but turns red at a 
higher cone. If it is so free from grit it might be worth look- 
ing into as a pencil clay. 

Graves County 

This county contains most of the ball and sagger-clay pits 
that have been opened up in the Purchase region. 

Pryorsburg, Two companies have opened up pits at this 
locality, but only one was in operation in the summer of 1921. 

Kentucky Construciion and Improvement Company, This 
company whose main office is at Mayfield, has pits located on 
the east side of the Illinois Central Railroad, and has been in 
operation since 1891. The deposits are said to underlie about 
50 acres. 

The following notes are taken chiefly from a forthcoming 
bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, prepared by 
the writer* : 

♦Published by pcrmlfcslon of Director, U. S. Geological Survey. 


The clay lens which is evidently a large one appears to 
trend in a direction 20° east of south, and its upper surface 
within the limits of the excavation is fairly level, while the over- 
burden because of surface irregularities varies from 36 to 60 

The first column below is a section of the deposit, measured 
in 1918, while in the second column is shown the same section 
as measured in November, 1921. The comparison is of interest 
as showing how the individual beds may change in thickness 
within a comparatively short distance: 

Ft. In. Ft. 

Sandy clay 6 

Gravel 3% 

Orange colored sand 4% 

Gravel 2 

Orange colored sand 1% 

Interbedded sand and clay lenses 1 

Variegated sand 6% 

Hard pan ironstone 6 J 

Tough brown clay 6 

Liguilte and ligniftic clay, of local occur- 
rence 0-12 

Sagger clay No. 1 3% 3% 

( Dark band 1^ 
Ball clay No. 2 5% j ^^^ ^^^^ 3 

Dark clay (black ball) 1 1% 

BaU clay No. 3 a.... 4% •: 

Clay, colored some by lignite ~ 1% 2 

Highly Ugnltic clay 6% 

Ball clay No. 4. chocolate colored with 

light motlings 5 3Vi 

Ball clay No. 5 4%-5 3% 

No. 6 fire clay 10 12 

No. 7 sand 4 4 

This section is quite varied, and probably shows a greater 
number of beds than any other section measured in western 
Kentucky or Tennessee. 

Immediately under the overburden of gravel and sand, at 
the north end of the pit is a lens of lignite which is 12i/^ feet 


thick in the center, but tapers out to nothing in both directions. 
It is mostly fine grained and contains few woody fragments. 

In addition to the data given in the section the following 
facts may be added : 

The sagger clay, which is light gray, with a dark seam in 
the center seems to be missing in the old pit nearby, that the 
company formerly worked. 

The No. 3 ball clay, corresponds to No, 4 of the old mine, 
where it lies directly below the lignite. This is used in the man- 
ufacture of crucibles, tiles and whiteware. It is also said to have 
been employed as an ingredient of steel enamels. The highly 
lignitic clay between this and the next lower ball clay is thrown 
out. In 1921 there was being shipped a black ball clay designated 
No. 4. 

Fig:. 4. General 

, The clay No. 7 is chocolate above, lighter below, the whole 
showing somewhat bright colorings. It is of value in glass-pot 

Underlying the ball elays arc several beds usually referred 
to as fire clays, and which have been opened up at a lower level. 


They appear somewhat similar but are separated into several 
grades. The upper one known as No. 5 ball is mixed with the 
lower fire clay and is of use in the clay bond of abrasive wheels. 

No. 6 next underlying is used to some extent in glass-pot 
mixtures and also for bats in abrasive-wheel work. 

No. 7 lies next below and is not as short as No. 6. 

The pit is a large opening, but the working is being done 
chiefly at the south end. 

After removing the overburden with steam shovel, and a 
large amount of this was being done in 1921, the clay is dug 
with mattock and shovel. It is then loaded on to small cars of 
1-ton capacity which are hauled to the foot of an incline and 
drawn up to the storage bins. 

A miscroscopic examination and also a few fire tests were 
made of several of the clays from this pit with the following 
results : 

No. 3 ball clay of non-lignitic character is very plastic, 
smooth and fine grained. It contains a very little quartz, but a 
great abundance of hydromica. Kaolinite is common, but rutile 
is scarce. It burns to a light cream color at 1330"C. with 11.4 
per cent porosity. A thin section of the fired clay examined 
under the miscroscope shows an exceedingly fine-grained, felt- 
like appearing mass with low interference colors. 

Old No. 4 ball clay is also a very smooth plastic clay with 
very little quartz. At ISSO'^C. it fires to a cream-white color 
with 11.5 per cent porosity. 

The No. 5 fire clay is medium to fine grained, but is very 
plastic and smooth. Under the microscope it shows little quartz, 
with hydromica common, and kaolinite much more abundant. 
Rutile occurs sparingly. At 1330°C. the clay showed 28.7% 
porosity. Its color was creamy-white. 

The following two tests were made by the Bureau of Mines, 
and are noted, herewith, by permission of the Director of the 
United States Geological Survey: 



Ball Clay Old No. 4 

Moulded into bars — 

Workability. Very plastic, sticky. Pulis up under spatula. 

Per cent tempering water in terms of dry clay 

Per cent drying vol. s-linlnkage in terms of dry clay 

Burned Data. 


Temp, of Firing. 

1190' C. 

1250'* C. 

ISIO'* C. 


UIO" C. 

Per cent Porosity — 
terms of burn, vol.... 

No. bars 

Per cent vol. skg. — 
terms of dry clay ... 

No. bars 



















Modulus of rupture 

Modulus of rupture, 50% sand 

. 25.55 lbs. per sq. in. 
.196.3 lbs. per sq. in. 

Defonmation temperature is Cone 32 Final. 

Ball Clay No. 5 


Moulded into bars — 

Workability. Plastic, tough. Moulds well. Warped in drying. 

Per cent tempering in terms of dry clay 34.47 

Per cent drying vol. shrinkage In terms of dry -day 26.34 

Burned Data. 

Temp, of Firing. 

1190" C. 

1250' C. 

1310** C. 


1410" C. 

Per cent porosity — 
terms of burn. vol.. 

No. bars 

Per cent vol. skg. — 
terms of dry clay ... 

No. bars 



















Modulus of rupture , 

Modulus of rupture, 50% sand 

.189.1 libs, per sq. in. 
.167.5 lbs. per sq. in. 

Deformation temperature is Cone 31 Final. 

Screen test. 1.27% remains on 150 mesh. 


panics, which in the aggregate arc capable of supplying con- 
siderable clay of ball and sagger grade. In the summer of 1921 
they were not all in active operation on account of the de- 
pressed condition of business. 

Old Hickory^ Clay and Talc Company. The Old Hickory 
Clay and Talc Company has a pit located on the D. M. Chapman 
farm, 2 miles southwest of Hickory station, the clay being 
hauled by auto truck to storage sheds along the Illinois Central 
Bailroad, south of Hickory. 

This pit, (Fig. 6), was first opened up in 1918, and has 
been considerably developed since that time. The section at 
present exposed shows : 


Oravel and sand overburden 8-23 

Sagger clay A 8-10 

Ball clay B, slightly mottled ..~ 6-8 

•Dark brown lignitic clay, with grains of resin % 

Ball clay C, lower part bluish gray in places 3-10 

White sand. 

The deposit is worked as an open pit, the clay being loaded 
into a large iron box which is hoisted to the top of the pit. 

The beds A and B are mixed for saggers. Clay B is used 
in electric porcelain, sanitary ware, etc. 

The following tests were supplied by the Old Hickory Clay 
and Talc Company. 


Plasticity Very good 

Water of plasticity 26% 

Linear air shrinkage 7% 

Volume air shrinkage, in terms of dry volume 26% 

Modulus of rupture, pounds per square inch 280 

Bonding strength, 1:1 clay sand mixture, lbs. per sq. in 137 

Slaking time in minutes, clay alone 23 

Slaking time in minutes, 1:1, clay-ground flint mixture 9 

Residue on 200 mesh .3% 

Steel hard 1150** C. 



Firlns tests. 

Linear Fire Vol. Pire Absorp- 

Temp. Shrink. Shrink. tion Porosity Color 

1150- C 13.08 27.30 Cream white 

1230* C 7.25 20.00 11.00 23.75 Light cream 

1270** C 10.00 22.00 9.80 21.70 Cream white 

1310" C 9.00 22.50 7.50 17.80 Light cream 


1370" C 10.50 30.00 3.90 9.00 Pale buff 

1450'* C 11.50 35.00 3.50 9.40 Gray 

This clay works up well and has good strength in the unburned 
condition. The color after firing is good, but it is a little too open 
burning to be classed as a typical ball clay. The shrinkage is not 
excessive. It should be of use in the manufacture of saggers, chemical 
stoneware, abrasives, and other uses to which this type of clay is put. 


Plasticity Very g^ood 

Water of plasticity 37.7 

Linear air shrinkage 6.7 

Volume air shrinkage, in terms of dry volume 25% 

Modulus of ruputre. pounds per square inch 249 

Bonding strength, 1:1, clay sand mixture, lbs. per sq. in 137 

Slaking time in minutes, clay along 20 

Slaking time in minutes, 1 : 1, clay-ground flint mixture 8 

Residue on 200 mesh .1% 

Steel hard 1150** C. 

Firing tests. 

Linear Fire Vol. Fire 








1150' C 



1230* C 





Cream white 

1270° C 





Cream white 

1310° C 





Cream white 

1370° C 






1450° C 






This clay shows a good transverse strength In its unburned condi- 
tion, and a fair degree of vitrification at 1310° C. The color of the fired 
clay is good. It is a good ball clay though not quite as dense burning 
as some. It should be of service for the various uses to which ball 
clays are put. 




Plasticity Very good 

Water of plasticity 4a% 

Linear air shrinkage 6.5% 

Volume air shrinkage, in terms of dry volume 30% 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq.. in ^ 401 

Bonding strength, 1:1, clay sand mixture, lbs. per sq. in 143 

Slaking time, in minutes, clay alone 15 

Slaking (time, in minutes, 1:1, clay-ground flint mixture 7 

Residue on 200 mesh .2% 

Steel hard 1150"* O. 

Firing itests. 

Linear Fire Vol. Fire Absorp- 

Temp. Shrink. Shrink. tion 

1150' C 12.9 

1230' C 11.0 25.6 9.1 

1270'* C 12.5 35.9 7.7 

1310* C 12.6 35.9 6.2 

1370"* C 15.0 36.8 .8 

1450^* C 16.0 40.0 .4 





Faint cream 



Light cream 


Cream white 


Gray buff 



This clay has excellent plasticity and strength in the unburned 
condition. It«1ires to a good color up to 1310** C, but above that 
darkens a little. It is a little more open burning than the typical (ball 
clay, but mixing it with the D grade would improve it. It should be 
of value for those uses to which ball clays are put. 


Plasticity Very good 

Water of plasticity 31.5% 

Linear air shrinkage 5.25% 

Volume air shrinkage 26.8% 

Modulus of ruipture, lbs. per sq. in 263 

Bonding strength, 1:1, clay sand mixture 102 

Slaking time, in minutes, clay alone 15 

Slaking time, in minutes, 1:1, clay-ground flint mixture 5 

Residue on 200 mesh Trace 

Steel hard 1150° C. 


Firing testB. 

Linear Fire Vol. Fire 











1230° C 





Light cream 

1270' C 





Light cream 

1310° C 





Cream white 

1370° C 






1450° C 






This c)ay has good plasticity and good strength In the unburned 
condition. It flres to a good color. At 1310° C. the porosity is low, 
as might be expected in a typical ball clay. This is the densest burn- 
ing ol the four samples. It should serve well lor those purposes re- 
quiring a typical ball clay. 

PI«r. 7. Pit of Colonial Clay Company, Hickory. 

Colonial Clay Company. The Colonial Clay Company has 
opened a small pit on the A. Wyatt farm, 2*^ miles southwest of 
Hickory and a short distance west of the pit of the Old Hickory 
Clay and Talc Company. 


The opening, (Fig. 7), which was idle at the time of our 
visit waa about 30 feet diameter, and the exposed section 
showed : 

Gravel 13 It. 

White clay 6 It. 

The material is said to be a sagger clay. 
M. B. Cooley Clay Company. This company has an open- 
ing about one mile west of Hickory and just north of Mr, 
Cooley 's house, A deep excavation of relatively small diameter 

Fie. 8. Pit of M. B. Cooley Clay Company, Hickory, 

has been made showing 8-15 feet of gravelly overburden, 
and about 50 feet of clay. It was not being operated at the time 
of our visit. A storage and drj-ing bin has been erei^ted near the 
pit and from this a sample of the smoothest material was taken 
for a partial test. The results are given below. 


The material (Lab No. 2466) is a smooth whitish clay, prob- 
ably from bottom of deposit : 

Plasticity Good 

Slaking time ~ 13 minutes 

Air shrinkage (linear) ^ 4% 

Fired at 1250' C. 

Fire shrinkage 12% 

Absorption 20.9% 

Color Faint creamy white 

Steel hard. 

Fired at 1430' C. 

Fire shrinkage 16% 

Absorption 0% 

Color Gray 

It is of the ball-clay type but rather open-burning at 
1250' C. 

Excelsior Clay Company, The Excelsior Clay Company 
with head office at 31 W. 13th St.. Cincinnati, has a pit 2 miles 
west of Hickory station, and hauls its clay by wagon to the rail- 

In 1918 the section on the west side of the pit showed: 

Gravel 9-12 ft. 

Sagger clay 15-16 ft 

On the east side of the pit about 50 feet distant the section 
was : 

Overburden 10 ft. 

Ijight bluish-white (ball •clay 6 ft. 

Sagger clay, gray, with red mottlings 2 ft. 

In the summer of 1921 the pit had been developed about 
30(K farther west, showing: 

Loam 3-8 ft. 

Gravel 8-10 ft. 

White sand 0-15 ft. 

Sagger clay (not all exposed) 15 ft. 

White sand. 


These several sections are interesting as showing how the 
Lagrange clay deposits may vary from point to point. 

A partial test of a sample (Lab. No. 2465) taken from the 
stock pile showed : 



„ 6.6% 

PIre tests. 

Fire Shrink. 



uao" C 



The clay does not burn white enough for a ball clay, but 
can be used for saggers. 

Fig. 9. Pit or West Kentucky Clay Company, Hickory. 

West Kentucky Clay Company. The West Kentucky Clay 
Company has opened up a pit about 2 miles south of west from 
Hickory. It is said to have 60 acres leased and to have tested 


out the clay to a depth of 30 feet by boring. The pit (No. 9) was 
not in operation when visited and showed : 

Gravelly overburden 10-20 ft. 

Clay, exposed 4.10 ft. 

The upper limit of the clay is rather uneven, but the de- 
posit is opened up on a hillside so as to make it self-draining. 
It is said that only sagger clay has thus far been shipped, but 
under this it is claimed that there is a bed of pink ball clay and 
one of chocolate ball clay the two being separated by a layer of 
lignite. These ball clays were not exposed. 

Kentucky Clay Mining Company. The Kentucky Clay Min- 
ing Company has a pit (Fig. 10) located two miles west of Viola, 
the clay being hauled to the railroad by teams and auto truck. 
The pit is a comparatively recent development. At the time 
it was visited the section showed: 

Gravel 6-10 ft. 

Reddish clay, sagger 4-5 It. 

Dark gray clay, In 'places with sandy 

laminae, and also leaf lm])re8sion8 15 ft. 


The grayish-black clay closely resembles that found in the 
pit of the Mayfield Clay Company at Pryorsburg. It is separated 
into several grades as sagger, ball and wad clay. 

Some partial tests were made on samples from this pit as 
follows : 

Grayish-black clay from 2d stratum 

(Lab. No. 2469) 

Plasticity _ - Good 

Slaking time 35 minutes 

Air shrinkage 6% 

Temip. Fire Shrink. Absorption Color 

% % 

950" C 2.5 20.0 White 

1250 •* C 9.0 9.6 Light creamy white 

1310* C 10.5 6.0 Light cream 

Steelhard 1250 ^^ C. 
Porosity at 1310" C. 16.2%. 


Jcky Clay Mlnlne Company, Z roilea west of Viola. 

So far as its buroing qualities are cODcerned the material 
fires to a color that would make it of use in whiteware, although 
its density at laiQ-C. is not very low. 

Grayish-black Clay, 3d atratum (Lab. No. 24S7) 

Fire testa. 

Plre Shrink. 



1430' C... 



Faint creamy white 


The color of this clay after firing is good, but it does not 
burn as dense as some of the other beds in the pit. It should be 
of use in whiteware, saggers, and other purposes for which a 
clay of this type is demanded. It has also been used for model- 

No. 4 Ball clay (Lab. No. 246S) 

Plasticity ~ Good 

Slaking time .- - S minutes 

Air shrinkage . 



Fire tests. 

Temp. Fire Shrink. 


950' C 2. 

1250" C 7.5 

1430' C 10.6 

Porosity at ISIO** C. .5%. 






Faint creamy white 

The color after firing is good, and it could probably be 
used in sanitary ware, chemical stoneware, saggers, etc. 

Brick and Pottery Plants, The only plants in operation in 
the county are a pottery at Bell City and a brick plant at May- 

Bell City Pottery. The Bell City Pottery operated by W. 
D. Russell is located at Bell City on the Mayfield-Paris road. 
The product is common stoneware. 

The clay deposit is situated just east of the Pottery and 
underlies 3 to 4 acres, and the section exposed shows: 

Surface clay loam 2-3 ft. 

Dark fat clay 3-4 ft. 

Light gray sandy clay 4 ft. 

The two lower beds, which contain abundant leaf impres- 
sions, are mixed for use. 

The clay is tempered in a ring pit, and molded on a pot- 
ter's wheel which is operated by a gasoline engine. Firing is 
done in a circular down-draft kiln with wood fuel. It requires 
60 hours, and the completion of the process is judged by trial 
pieces. Albany slip clay is employed for glazing. The ware is 
disposed of in the surrounding country. 

Mr. Russell formerly operated the stoneware plant at Pot- 
tertown, and his present one is evidently the same as that re- 
ferred to by Easton (Ref. 10, p. 795) under the name of W. B. 
Howard and Son. In that report Easton speaks of the plant 
having used a 10-foot bed of very plastic white clay. 

For this clay he gave: air shrinkage, 5%; fire shrinkage, 
9^; tensile strength, 25 lbs. per sq. in.; vitrification, cone 11; 
color, white at cone 1 and dove gray at vitrification. 


The analysis given by Easton is : 

Silica 68.54 

Alumina 19.92 

Ferric oxide 80 

Ferrous oxide - tr. 

Lime tr. 

Magnesia 70 

Titanic oxide 1.20 

Potash 1.66 

Soda ^ 24 

Water 6.25 

Moisture 1.10 


Standard Brick Works, The Standard Brick Works of May- 
field is located just beyond town along the Pryorsburg road, and 
on the western side of the Illinois Central Railroad. 

The clay used is a surface loam of Columbian age and is 
dug just west of the works. The bricks are molded in a dry- 
press machine, and the plant is equipped with 5 circular and 
1 rectangular down-draft kilns. The product is a good red 
color and has a good ring. 

Hickman County 

No high-grade clay is mined in this county, and none ap- 
pears to have been in the past. 

Easton ifRef. 10, p. 847) describes a clay occurring in the 
so-called ** chalk banks'* below Columbus. It is said to lie 
in the Lagrange formation, is 35 feet thick, and of a dark gray 
color. It has the following properties : 

Plasticity Moderate 

Air shrinkage 0% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in 48 

Pire ehrinltage 2.5% 

Vitrification cone +11 

Color when fired Cream 


A second sample, from a 10-foot bed lying below the pre- 
ceding, has 10% air shrinkage, 0% fire shrinkage and is vitri- 
fied at cone 11. 


The only clay-product plants in this county are two brick 
yards, neither of which have been in operation for several years. 

One of these is that of J. A. Harpole at Columbus, who used 
to make common brick from a yellow surface clay. The other 
is that of Thomas Boodman at Clinton. 

Marshall County 

Several clay pits have been opened in this county, but only 
one of them appears to be a steady producer. They all lie in 
the Porter's Creek formation, which stratigraphically is next 
below the Lagrange and do not yield as high-grade clays as the 

As there have been few changes in the industry in this 
county in the last few years we may quote from a forthcoming 
report of the United States Geological Survey, prepared by the 

Benton. Several pits have been opened up in the vicinity 
of Benton, but they have been worked sporadically to supply 
a local demand. 

One of these openings known as the Howard pit, is located 
1 mile northwest of Benton, and is a shallow excavation cover- 
ing about half an acre. The total thickness of the clay is 12 feet, 
.of which 5 to 7 feet is a black laminated clay and the rest a 
sagger clay. The clay appears to thin out to the southward. 
The wad clay from the Howard pit is of fair plasticity, but 
rough textured and to the eye shows a few mica scales and fine- 
ly-divided organic matter:. 

A sample fired to 1330'C. showed 12% absorption, 24.5% 
porosity and was buff colored. 

About Vs ™ile west of the Howard pit, and along the high- 
way leading north from Benton, clay again outcrops in a high 
bank. It lies at a higher level than the Howard pit and may 
be a different deposit. The overburden is 8 feet but increased 
rapidly to the east due to the rise of the surface. 

About 31/4 miles north of Benton, there are two other pits 
on the Lofton property, which have been worked some in the 
past to supply the Paducah Pottery Company. The clay is said 

*By permission of the Director. U. S. Oeolosrlcal Survey, 



to underlie 40 acres. It is sandy, about 15 feet thick, and un- 
derlain by sand, while above it is a gravelly conglomerate and 
hardpan, whose thickness b not less than 8 or 10 feet. 

Brieiisburg. The Paducah Clay Company has opened up 
a deposit for pottery use 2 miles east of Briensburg. (Fig. 11.) 

Fig. 11. View In pit of Paducah Clay Company, showlns black clay. 

Ill 1918 there was on one side of the excavation a square pit 
showing 30 feet of clay. This material is black, dense, and 
plastic, but contains sandy laminae from 2-6 inches apart. Flat 
pyrite concretions lying along the bedding planes are scattered 
through the deposit, but these are thrown out in mining. Near 
the bottom of the clay there are thin layers of glauconitic sand. 

The amount of overburden is variable. It was 4 feet where 
the clay was being dug in 1918, but in 1921 the pit showed 8 feet 
of gravel and 14 feet of orange sand on top of the clay. 

The clay is used in stoneware and saggers. 

A sample of the clay fired at ISHO'C. was grayish brown 
with 5.6 per cent absorption and 12.9 per cent porosity. It is 
steel hard. 



The clay is hauled by truck to Paducah where it is used 
in the manufacture of stoneware. 

Miscellaneous Tests. The following tests of clays from dif- 
ferent localities in Marshall County are given by Easton. (Ref. 
10, p. 865) : 

I. II. III. IV. 

Silica *.-. 55.90 65.10 63.20 60.60 

Alumina 26.34 22.18 23.32 25.06 

Ferric oxide 2.24 128 1.22 1.36 

iFerrouiS oxide 28 .28 .22 .43 

Lime tr. tr. 

Magnesia 1.01 .80 tr. tr. 

Sulphur trioxide tr 

Potash 189 1.38 1.41 1.40 

Soda 33 .37 .32 .24 

Titanic oxide 1.00 1.12 1.10 1.00 

Water 8 86 6.89 7.57 8.45 

Moisture 1.93 1.10 1.10 1.25 

99.78 100.50 99.46 99.79 

Plasticity Pair Excellent Pair Excellent 

Air shrinkage 6.0% 5.0% 7.5% 5.0% 

Fire shrinkage 9.0% 5.0% 7.5% 6.0% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per 

sq. in 63 55 66 42 

Cone of vitrification 9 11+ 6 10 

Color when fired Drab White Buff Cream 

I. L. Faust, 2 miles east of Palma. 

II. Wm. Bunadell place, near Bryantsburg and Gilbertsville road, 
2^ miles north of Bryantsburg. A micaceous, rather sandy, whitish 

III. Same locality as II. 

IV. Lon Lofton clay, on Paducah and Benton road at Scale. White 
clay with iron mottlings. 

McCracken County 

This county is important for the location of clay products 
factories, rather than as a producer of raw clays. All the works, 
two brick plants and one pottery, are located in the city of Pa- 


Padticah Pottery Company. This company has a plant, 
which produces stoneware, the clays being obtained in part from 
Kentucky and in part from Indiana. 

Paducah Brick and Tile Company. The Paducah Brick 
and Tile Company, located on south 10th St., produces common 
building brick only. 

The clay used is a flood plain clay of the Ohio River, the 
pit being situated about 400 feet south of the works. The ma- 
terial is a tough red clay, and the bottom of the bank, whose 
face is about 25 feet high, is 30 feet above river level. Below 
the red clay is a tough blue clay that was formerly mixed with 
the upper clay and used in the manufacture of hollow block and 
tile. It is not used now. 

Fig. 12. Clny pil, Fadiicaii nrlck and Tile Comuanv. Paducah, 

The bricks are molded in a soft-mud machine, and dried 
on pallet racks. Firing, which takes 12 days, is done in Dutch 
kilns. The clay shows 12 inches settle in 41 courses. 

The market is chiefly western Kentucky and Tennessee. 

Hill and Karnes. This firm operates a common brick plant 
at 900 North Si."ith Street. The material used is a flood-plain 
elay, dug about 25 feet above river level. 


The bricks are molded in a soft-mud machine, dried on 
pallet racks, and fired in Dutch kilns. During burning there 
is 12-14 inches settle in 42 courses. The product is a good com- 
mon brick, but selected brick are sold for fronts. The market 
is the same as the preceding. 

Miscellaneous Operations, Some clay development is said 
to have been attempted by the Paducah Clay Products Company 
on the Contest road, 5 miles southwest of Paducah, but no defi- 
nite information is obtainable regarding the operation. 

Easton (Ref. 10, p. 869) gives the following phj'sical tests 
of some clays in McCracken County : 

Color fired .Gray Gray Gray Light Yellow 

white white white gray Yellow Red Brown 

Plasticity Good Good E)xcel. Good Fair Good Good 

Air shrinkage 5% 5% 5% 9% 2% 8% 7% 

Fire shrinkage 9% 12% 13% 9% 3% 12% 8% 

Tensile strength, lbs. 

per sq. in 60 70 82 61 

Cone of incipient fusion.... 9 9 9 1 4 

Cone of vitrification 11 11 11 11 11+ 6 9 

I. 8 miles south of Paducah. Six feet of clay. Samipde tested rep- 
resents upper 2 feet. 

n. Lower 4 feet of I. 

III. Upper 4 feet of a 6-foot bed, 7^ miles south of Paducah on 
Contest road. 

IV. Lower 3 feet of IIL 

V. V. Welch property on Lone OakJMiayfield road, 3 miles from 
Lone Oak. 

VL R. Bell property on Padu<cah-Mayfield road, 4 miles south of 
Paducah. Clay 6-12 feet thick in Lafayette formation. 

VII. G. Munier property, 5V^ miles south of Paducah on same road 
as VI. 

Paducah, The following tests were supplied by Dr. R. R. 
Winston, of Paducah. They were made on samples taken from 
a clay deposit located 4 miles south of Paducah. The chemical 
analysis was made on material taken from eight feet below the 
surface, while the physical tests were made at the Bureau of 


Standards on samples taken from 15 and 26 feet below the sur- 
face. The chemical analysis gave: 

snica 52.90 

Alumina 33.30 

Ferric oxide 2.01 

Lime 48 

Magnesia 75 

Alkalies 1.35 

Water 9.21 


A physical test made by the Bureau of Standards is re- 
ported as follows: **The clay was of a black color and pos- 
sessed good plasticity and working qualities. The water re- 
quired for the plastic state was 55.5^ in terms of the dry 
weight, and the volume shrinkage was also very high being 66.1^ 
in terms of the dry volume. In firing to cone 2 the shrinkage 
was as much as 50^ expressed in terms of the dry volume and 
the clay at this point reached the vitrified state showing a po- 
rosity of less than 1%. The color at this point was of a dark 
gray. The strength of the material in the dry state was very 
high, amounting to a modulus of rupture of 1100 pounds per 
square inch, which is considerably above the average. The ma- 
terial, therefore, has good plasticity but very high drying and 
burning shrinkage. Its refractory quality evidently is not of a 
high order.'' 




The area described in this chapter includes that portion 
of the state extending from the Tennessee River on the west to 
the Bluegrass region in the northern half, and the eastern coal- 
field in the southern half of the state. It does not include the 
belt of lower Mississippian formations which surround the Blue- 
grass region, these for convenience being included in Chapter 

The area under discussion embraces therefore the follow- 
ing formations: 

1. Surface clays and loams of flood-plain or terrace char- 
acter. These are found bordering streams, and are often suit- 
able for the manufacture of common or even face brick and 
sometimes drain tile. The most important of these deposits 
are those located along the Ohio River, and which are worked 
at several points, notably Henderson, West Point, Uniontown, 

2. Allegheny series of shales found in the western coalfield. 
As a rule these are not always of great thickness and some may 
be too carbonaceous to use without trouble in firing. Some of 
them, as the tests given on subsequent pages show, are of the 
proper nature for use in the manufacture of brick, tile and hol- 
low blocks, or in one case possibly even stoneware. None of 
those examined have been found to be of the fire-clay type. 

Some of the shales, as around Madisonville, are used in 
their weathered condition. 

The Allegheny formations of the western coalfield consist 
of a series of shales, sandstones, coals and some limestone. Struc- 
turally they form a basin, with the beds around the margin 
dipping towards the center. 

3. Pottsville formation. This formation exhibits a ** con- 
glomeratic or coarse sandstone phase as a continuous border to 


the western coal field, (Miller, Ref. 23, p. 155), except on its 
eastern side. Here there is a considerable stretch where no 
conglomerate occurs. There is an interesting outlier or rather 
long tongue-like projection of the lower conglomerate of the 
western field, which stretches in virtual continuity from the ex- 
treme eastern end of it through Hart County, and along the 
boundary of Larue and Green and Taylor counties as far as 
the top of Muldraugh's Hill, forming the boundary of Taylor and 
Marion counties north of Spurlington." 

The conglomerate itself is of no value for the manufacture 
of clay products, but there are certain pockets of white clay, 
often referred to as '* kaolin," which occur at the base of the 
Pottsville in Hart, Edmonson, Taylor and possibly other coun- 

This material is undoubtedly of the same character as the 
so-called Indianaite which is found at the same geological hori- 
zon in Indiana, and which there is supposed to have been formed 
by the replacement of the Pottsville pebbly sandstone. 

In Kentucky this material occurs immediately below the 
Pottsville, and at times contains partially disintegrated pebbles 
of the latter. When pure it is a white, dense, clay-like substance, 
with conehoidal fracture and resembling unglazed porcelain. 
Fragments of it exposed to the weather break down very slowly. 
It apparently never occurs in commercial quantities, and where 
found grades into or is mixed with colored clays which may 
represent a weathering product. At one point Gardner records 
the finding of a small amount of bauxite and wavellite with 
the ** kaolin." We were able to find some of the wavellite but 
no bauxite, but as the test pit had caved in, no accurate observa- 
tions were possible. 

It is possible that some of the clay shales worked at Hawes- 
ville, Hancock County, are of Pottsville age. 

4. The Mississippian rocks are represented by the Chester 
series and the Mammoth Cave limestone, as well as the narrow 
tongues of the Waverly series. The Chester series is found form- 


ing an irregular belt surrounding the western coalfield. (Pig. 
2.) Its subdivisions have been given by Butts, (Ref. 3), as 
follows : 

Clore formation. 
Palestine sandstone. 
Menard limestone. 
Tarr Springs sandstone. 
Glen Dean limestone. 
Hardinsburg sandstone. 
Golconda formation. 
Big Clifty sandstone. 
Ridenhower shale. 
Gasper oolite. 
GBethel sandstone. 
O'fiara limestone. 

On the western side of the coalfield in Crittenden and Liv- 
ingston counties the section is pretty complete, but on the east- 
ern side from Breckinridge to Warren County the subdivisions 
above the Tar Springs sandstone are difficult to identify and 
Butts refers to them collectively as the Buflfalo Wallow forma- 

On the eastern side of the coalfield the Pottsville conglomer- 
ate rests unconf ormably on the Chester, the upper surface of the 
latter being very irregular due to erosion, so that the Pottsville 
does not always rest on the same member, erosion sometimes 
having removed beds as far down as the base of the Big Clifty. 
It is difficult indeed at times to say exactly what clay or shale 
is underlying the Pottsville. 

The three formations that may be of interest to the clay 
worker are the Buffalo Wallow, Golconda and Ridenhower. 

The Buffalo Wallow shales are used to make an excellent 
grade of roofing tile and floor tile at Cloverport. Shales or 
clays of this formation also occur in Hardin and Hart counties, 
some of them firing to a hard body of red color. 

The Ridenhower shale is developed chiefly on the western 
side of the coalfield and is said to be rather sandy. A shale 
underlying the Big Clifty sandstone at Eastview, Hardin Coun- 
ty, may belong to this formation. 


The Golconda, according to Butts, carries 60 feet of shale 
which can be seen along the road to Brownsville. 

All in the Chester formation is well worthy of further ex- 

5. Mammoth Cave Limestone, These limestone forma- 
tions underlie the larger part of the area referred to in this 
chapter. They are of no value to the clay worker in their fresh 
condition, but yield on weathering residual clays which can be 
used in the manufacture of common brick and sometimes possi- 
bly tile. Deposits large enough to support a small brick plant 
are abundant, but they are not likely to be used by larger plants, 
partly because better materials can be obtained in other parts 
of the area. 

The counties referred to below are those in which clays were 
examined as regarding the clays of which other tests and de- 
scriptions have been published. 

Barren County 

Most of this county lacks transportation routes, but aside 
from this there is not much chance of finding anything better 
than residual clay for common brick. 

The Dickinson Brick and Tile Company used to manufac- 
ture common brick at Glasgow, but is idle at present. 

Breckinridge County 

The Chester series of the Mississippian underlies a large 
part of Breckinridge County, and it thus forms excellent terri- 
tory to prospect for clays. 

Murray Roofing Tile Company, At Cloverport in the north- 
western corner of the county, the Buffalo Wallow shale (Fig. 
13) is used by the Murray Tile Company for making an ex- 
cellent grade of roofing tile, and quarry tile for flooring pur- 


Fig-. 13. Shale bank, Murray Rooflng Tile Coi 

The shale is obtained from a pit immediately adjoining the 
works, and as it dips into the hill is overlain by limestone. The 
shale used is sliRhtly weathered and in spots slightly calcareous 
as well as containing a little gj-paum. It has excellent working 
qualities. The following represents a partial test of the ma- 
terial : 

Plasticity „ Excellent 

Water of plasticity „ 23.*% 

Modulus of rupture, Iba. per sq. In 468 

Air shrlnkase. linear ^ 7% 

Color after firing Red 

The clay fires to a very hard body. If manganese is added 
to the material a brown tile is produced. 

During the summer of 1921 a new pit was being opened 
np several hundre<l yards northeast of the works, and also along 
the railroad. This new pit also has a blue and a red shale, both 
of which may be used. 

The shale after crushing and tempering is molded in a stiff- 
mud machine, the clay being run from the die as a ribbon which 
is then cut up into the proper lengths for shingle roofing tile 
or floor or roof quarry tile. Drying is done in tunnels. The 
plant is equipped with 6 circular down-draft kilns, 30 feet in 
diameter, and the firing takes 12 days. The tile are set in the 
kiln on etlge, in pockets formed by quarry tile. The thermo- 

C of K -3 


electric pyrometer indicates 1750°F. as the temperature of firing, 
and this gives a gootl, hard product. The roofing tile weigh 
1175 pounds per square, 

A number of the extra thin quarry tile for flat roofs have 
been shipped to Cuba. 

This factory when first established was producing paving 
blocks, and was later converted into a tile works. 

Vnworkid Deposits. Little detailed work has been done 
on the Chester shales of Breckinridge County. 

Easton (Ref. 10, p. 768), notes a 20-foot bed of shale at 
Buffalo Wallow, which he states is dark gray in color, ot low 

Sewerplpe Company. 

plasticity, and fires red. It has 7.5^ air shrinkage; 10% fire 
shrinkage; vitrifies at cone 4, and bet-omes viscous at cone 6. 

lie also (Kef. 10, p. 767) refers to a 40-foot bed of Chester 
shale at Stephensport. This be states is also lean, and fires red. 
It has 5% air shrinkage; y% fire shrinkage, and vitrifies at 
cone 2. 


Cbittendek County 

Most of this county is underlain by Mississippian forma- 
tions, especially limestones, which have yielded residual clays. 
These have been referred to by Fohs (Ref. 12, p. 124) in an 
earlier report of the Kentucky Geological Survey who calls 
them laterites. 

Fohs also describes a siliceous clay, said to be of refractory 
quality, and similar to that found at the Stevens mine, (See 
under Livingston County), but these deposits known also as 
the Corn Mines have been inactive for a long time. 

The Ridenhower shale although occurring in Crittenden 
County, shows few outcrops on account of its being a soft stratum 
between two sandstones, but according to Butts (Ref. 3), a good 

Fig-. Hb. Slock yard and kilns of Owenaboro Sewerpipe Company, 
exposure of the shale in the condition of laminated clay is seen 
on the road to Siloam school, 3 miles west -southwest of Marion, 
where 50 feet of it is exposed. 

Daviess County 
This county is underlain entirely by Pennsylvanian forma- 
tions, with the exception of a strip along the Ohio River, where 


flood-plain deposits lie below the surface. Similar alluvial de- 
posits are also found along some of the streams towards the in- 
terior of the county. 

It would seem desirable to prospect this county for shales 
in the Pennsylvanian. Beds of red-burning shale for example 
can be seen outcropping in places along the river, although there 
is some question regarding their thickness. Shale suitable for 
sewer pipe is also said to occur near Short's station. 

Owefisboro, Two sewer-pipe and flue-lining plants, both 
belonging to the Owensboro Sewer Pipe Company, are located 
at Owensboro, but only the larger one was in operation in the 
summer of 1921. 

This company obtains a clay shale from Lamkin, Hancock 
County, and a shale of Pottsville ( ?) age from Hawesville, Han- 
cock County. Both of these underlie coal and are regarded as 
low-grade fire clays. The flue linings are made of the Lamkin 
clay, while the Hawesville shale alone is used for small size 
sewer pipe, but not for large ones as it is said to cause blister- 
ing. Hence the large pipe are made of a mixture of the two 

The following tests are of importance as showing the char- 
acter of the clay found in the Pennsylvanian of Hancock County. 

Shale from Hawesville (Lab. No. 2432). 

Lime carbonate None 

Plasticity Good 

Water of plasticity 16% 

Slaking time 30 minutes 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 196 

Air shrinkage (linear) 35 

Color after firing ^ Buff 

Steel hard 950* C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption Porosity 


































0. Overflred. 


The air shrinkage of the clay is low, and it requires little 
water to mold. The modulus of rupture is good and color after 
firing good. It has a good firing range, but is not a true fire clay. 

It is used for sewer pipe and flue linings, and could also be 
used for face brick and terra cotta. 

Clay shale from Lamkln (Lab. No. 2433). 

Lime carbonate None 

Working quallUes Smooth 

Plasticity Excellent 

Water of plasticity 11.6% 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 199 

Air shrinkage (linear) 3j6% 

Color after firing Buff 

Steel hard 950** C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption Porosity 

% % % 

950** C 1.0 14.2 27.9 

1050*' C 2.0 10.1 27.0 

1070' C 3.0 7.9 21.0 

1190*^ C 4.5 6.7 20.4 

ISIO^'C 6.0 .5 2.0 

1430* C Ovepflred. 

It is an excellent clay for the use to which it is put. It is 
not quite as dense burning at the lower temperatures as the 
Hawesville material. Its air shrinkage is low, working qualities 
good and modulus of rupture also good. 

In addition to being used for sewer pipe and flue linings 
this clay should also find use in the manufacture of face brick 
and terra cotta. 

The clay and shale are brought to the plant over the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad. The material is first crushed in a dry 
pan, screened and then tempered in wet pans, after which it 
is delivered to the pipe press. 

Drying is done on floors, and firing in circular down-draft 
kilns of which there are 10. It is said to take 31/^ days to reach 
a temperature of 1800°P. as indicated by the pyrometer. The 
kilns are salted when 1850° F. is reached. Trial pieces are used 
in addition to the pyrometer. 

The plant now running has a capacity of 3000 8-inch sewer 
pipes per day. 


The product is shipped to different cities between New Or- 
leans and Cincinnati. 

One common brick works is in operation here, that of S. B. 
McCuUough, which is located one mile south of Owensboro. The 
material used is a sandy alluvial clay, lying in the Ohio flood- 
plain. The product consists of common brick, molded by the 
soft-mud process. A stiff-mud machine was being installed dur- 
ing the summer of 1921. 

The Tennes Brick Company formerly in operation at Owens- 
boro, is no longer running. 

Moseleyville. At Moseleyville, 10 miles south of Owensboro, 
the Clark Manufacturing Company operates a drain-tile plant. 
The clay underlies flat land bordering a stream and is undoubted- 
ly an alluvial deposit. The pit which lies near the plant shows 
an upper loamy clay that has been mined to a depth of 8 to 10 
feet, while under this there is a distinctly bedded clay of bluish 
color, and at least 3 feet thick. Many small concretions of lime 
carbonate occur in the upper clay, but they seem to lie mostly 
in a zone 3-4 feet below the surface. 

The plant is equipped with a stiff-mud machine, two-story 
drying sheds,, and three circular down-draft kilns, in which 
the ware is fired to 1750° P. The clay seems to make an ex- 
cellent drain tile. 

This company operates another plant at Ashbyburg. 

Edmonson County 

The southern portion of the county offers only residual 
red-burning clays derived from limestones, but the northern 
half is underlain by the beds of the Chester series and hence 
should offer good ground for prospecting. 

Brownsville. Along the road leading from the Dixie High- 
way northward to Brownsville, there are sufficient shallow ex- 
posures of shale to warrant testing out this area with some care, 
and Butts (Ref. 3, p. 91) remarks that the Golconda shale 
along this road has a thickness of 60 feet. 

Gardner (Ref. 13, p. 49) has called attention to several 
localities in this county ; but they are either too remotely located 
from lines of transportation or of no commercial value. 


He refers among others to two oeourrences of the so-called 
kaolin, which is the same as the Indianaite of Indiana. One of 
these deposits is located on the John T. B. Stice place, V/j; miles 
in an air line southeast of Brownsville, and on the east bank of 
the Qreen River. 

The section given by Gardner is: 

Pottsville Conglomerate and sandstone 70 ft. 

White particles 1 ft 

Yellow and waxy Indianaite 4 ft. 

Mixture of bauxite and wavellite 2 ft. 

Covered 10 ft. 

Chester limestone 2 ft. 

He says: '*This material is stained with iron oxide to some 
extent on the outside of the pieces.'' The Indianaite is found 
in pieces from the size of a bird's egg to six inches diameter. 
The mixture of bauxite and wavellite occurs in chunks or 
boulders from 6 inches to a foot thick. 

Analyses are given of: I. The white material at the top. 
II. The waxy material; and III. The hard brownish material 
at the bottom. 

L IL in. 

Silica 42.40 42.42 20.04 

Alumina 36.21 35.20 40.53 

Ferric oxide .45 .64 1.24 

Lime .38 .34 .34 

Magnesia .53 .53 .40 

Potash 09 .23 .31 

Soda .08 .09 

Phosphorus pentoxide .... .20 .22 3.75 

Titanic oxide tr. tr. tr. 

Sulphur trioxide tr. tr. .27 

Ignition 14.52 13.84 20.92 

Moisture 6.15 6.84 13.65 

100.01 100.36 101.47 

Analyses I and II are evidently the same material. They 
contain too much chemically combined water for kaolinite. They 
also appear to have lost considerable weight when heated at a 
low temperature, as is characteristic of Indianaite. 


The third analysis is rather peculiar. Dr. Peters refers to 
it as being possibly a mitnre of wavellite and bauxite. If so 
it must contain considerable free silica in addition, as neither 
bauxite nor wavellite normally carry any. It may be a mix- 
ture of bauxite, wavellite, and Indianaite. 

Mr. Stice showed us the pit where the section given above 
was found, but it had caved in so that we were not able to see 
much. However, in the upper part of the deposit the lumps 
of Indianaite were to be found, and on the dump pile we found 
some specimens that appeared to be hard Indianaite with some 
stellate groups of acicular crystals that resembled wavellite. 
The occurrence is of undoubted scientific interest, but it is not 
of commercial importance. 

On the north side of the Green River, along the road lead- 
ing up the hill from the Brownsville ferry there are exposures 
of soft shale, but the outcrops were not sufficient to permit 
getting a fair sample for testing. They would undoubtedly bear 

On the W. B. Parsley place, 5 miles northeast of Browns- 
ville, Gardner has noted a clay shale, at least 3Vi feet thick, 
which was struck in digging a ditch. It may belong to the 
Chester shales. The material fires to a buff color, has 80 pounds 
tensile strength, 5% air shrinkage, and 12 ^fc fire shrinkage. It 
is not vitrified at cone 9. An analysis which is given shows 
1.39% ferric oxide, and 4.53% total fluxes. 

Grayson County 

Gardner (Ref. 13, p. 61) notes that over the northeastern 
and eastern portions of the county the lowlands show exposures 
of St. Louis limestone, but that the uplands show exposures of 
rocks of the Chester series, while the higher hills are capped 
with the Pottsville conglomerate. 

Of three occurrences of clay noted by him, none seem to be 
of commercial value either because of thick hard rock over- 
burden, or because of their non-plastic character. 

The Illinois Central Railroad crosses the county and it is 
probable that prospecting within shipping distance of this would 
show some suitable clays either in the Chester or in the Penn- 


\ Hardin County 

Clay-bearing Formations. The clays of Hardin County 
have already been referred to in an earlier report by Gardner. 
(Ref. 13, p. 20.) As he there points out practically the only 
clays to be found in the eastern half are those resulting from 
the decay of limestone, and which could be used for making 
common brick. In case the clay is derived from a cherty lime- 
stone, care should be taken to remove or crush this material 
before the clay goes into the brick machine. 

In the western half of the county clays or shales of Chester 
age occur. The clays are probably in some cases at least, shales 
which have been mellowed by weathering, and may harden as 
they are dug into. 

Attention should be called to the fact that the clays in 
some cases overlie the Big Clifty sandstone, while in others 
they underlie it stratigraphically. When the latter is the case 
it would not pay to mine the clay by underground methods, 
unless it were a fire clay, and so far as is known no fire clays 
have been found in the Chester series in this county. There 
are places, however, where the Big Clifty sandstone has been 
removed by erosion or else where the slope in which the clay is 
exposed is a very gentle one, thus making it possible to dig quite 
a tonnage of clay without removing much overburden. 

It must be confessed that all of the clays referred to by 
Gardner or of which samples were collected for testing for this 
report, are not located very close to the railroad, but in order 
to get exposures where samples could be collected so as to 
determine the character of the Chester clays in this county, it 
was necessary at times to go a little distance from the main lines 
of transportation. 

Mr. Gardner suggests uses for the several deposits which he 
notes, but it is not known whether this is based on any tests 
that have been made, for none are given in the report. Some 
of these localities were also visited during the field work for 
the present report and some samples collected for testing. 

Stephensburg, Gardner reports that on the J. B. Jenkins 
place, adjoining that of and owned by W. S. Glasscock, 1 1-4 
miles south of Stephensburg on the Illinois Central Railroad, 


the clay outcrops on a high ridge at the southern part of the 
farm. He gives the section as : 

Big Clifty sandstone. 

Yellow plastic clay 2 ft. 

Drab plastic clay 14 ft. 

Oolitic limestone 20 ft. 

Unless the clay could be found at a point where there is 
little sandstone overburden, it would not be practicable to work 
it, unless it represents a high-grade clay. 

A sample was collected during the summer of 1921 from 
the farm of W. S. Glasscock, 1 3-4 miles south of Stephensburg. 
This is a dark plastic clay 4 feet thick overlain by 5 feet of 
a reddish clay that looks like residual material. The clay shows 
a rather abundant stain of iron and manganese. The deposit 
evidently lies between the Big Clifty sandstone and St. Louis 

The material is probably red burning but the deposit is of 
doubtful commercial value. 

East View, Gardner notes the occurrence of drab or 
yellow plastic clays at several localities around East View as 
follows : 

1. Taylor Jeffries place, 11/^ miles north of East View. 
15 feet of clay under 30 feet of sandstone. 

2. Joseph Lilly place, 1 mile northwest of East View. 5 
feet of clay under 20 feet sandstone. 

3. S. H. Richardson place, 31^ miles northwest of East 
View. Clay only 4 feet thick under 80 feet of Big Clifty sand- 
stone, and probably not a commercial proposition. 

4. J. D. Barnes place, 2i^ miles west of East View. Clay 
6 feet thick with 1 foot parting of coal. 

5. Illinois Central Railroad deposit. This is a deposit of 
gray plastic, smooth shale, exposed in the railroad cut a few 
hundred feet south of East View station. Not more than 5 feet 
of gray shale is exposed above the level of the tracks, and there 
is about 10 feet of Chester sandstone over it. The same shale 
also occurs on the farm of Mrs. John Hall. Gardner gives the 
thickness of the shale as 10 feet, but there is no exposure show- 
ing that much now. 


It is said that some years ago a number of tons of this shale 
were shipped to P. Bannon & Company of Louisville, for use in 
sewer-pipe manufacture, but that they considered it too fusible 
for their use. 

A sample of the material, (Lab. No. 2420), was collected 
for testing and the results are given below : 

Texture Excellent 

Working character Very smootli, good 

Water of plasticity 36.5% 

Slaking time 21 minutes 

Anrerage modulus of rupture 4&9 lbs. .per sq. in. 

Air shrinkage (linear)- 9.5% 

Color after 'firing Red, becoming deeper with higher firing 

Steel hard 959° C. 











Fire Shrinkage 














The plasticity and modulus of rupture are high. The air 
shrinkage is too high to permit the shale being used alone, and 
it should be mixed with a leaner clay. The color is excellent, 
and the fire shrinkage is not excessive. 

On account of its bonding qualities it should make a good 
material to use in a mixture for drain tile, roofing tile, sewer 
pipe and earthenware. 

^Vash Nichols Place, This is also known as the farm of 
Leslie Ashlock. This is 2 miles west of East View, and the clay 
is well exposed in a large gully along the roadside just west 
of the house. The section is : 

Pottsville sandstone. 

Clay shale 4 ft 

Dark plastic cflay, with upper part containing con- 
cretions of siderite and manganese 10 ft. 

Purplish clay 8 ft. 

Dark clay (calcareous) 2 ft. 

Dark red clay 2% ft. 

Shaly clay, ^ypsiferous 4 ft. 

Covered 15 ft. 


The location of the deposit is such that it could be worked 
along the face of the gentle slope on which it outcrops without 
the necessity of removing much overburden. Two beds were 
sampled for testing, and the partial tests of each are given be- 

The red clay (Lab. No. 2421) which is calcareous is of fair 
plasticity, and fires to a good red color, becoming steel hard at 
950°C. The linear air shrinkage is 6.5%. At 950°C. it fires 
to a good brick with 2.5% linear fire shrinkage and 5.6% ab- 
sorption. At 1050° C. it fires to a deep red body with 5% 
linear fire shrinkage and 3.1% absorption. 

The indications are that it is a good common brick clay and 
might possibly make drain tile also. 

The gray clay (Lab. No. 2423), which is also calcareous, has 
good plasticity. The properties are: Air shrinkage (linear) 
7.5%. At 1050°C. it had 5.5% fire shrinkage, and 2.2% ab- 
sorption. It fires to a red brick, which is steel hard at 950° C. 
and should give a good brick at that temperature. It might also 
work for drain tile. 

James Coogle Farm. This lies li^ miles northeast of East 
View station, and on the east side of the Illinois Central Bail- 
road. Clay exposures can be seen which lie between the Big 
Clif ty sandstone and the St. Louis limestone, but they are not 
sufficiently extensive to indicate the quantity or thickness of 
the material. They do, however, indicate that there is probably 
a rather persistent bed of clay shale lying below the Big Clifty 

East View. The two following analyses of a greenish gray 
clay from the property of C. F. Swindler have been supplied 
by C. E. Bales : 

I. II. 

Silica 67.20 57.96 

Alumina 24.06 23.82 

Ferric oxide 6.42 6.90 

Lime 1.12 1.14 

Magnesia 1.02 1.04 

Alkalies 1.60 1.68 

Ingnition 9.58 8.44 

100.00 99.98 


Sample No. II was fired to 2500° F. and foxind to be vitri- 

Summit. Sam Nelson and James Lesley Farms, These are 
2 3/4 miles south of Summit on a county road, at a locality 
known as Buffalo Wallow.* 

The section shows : 

Soil 2 ft. 

Gray shale 9 ft. 


The shale is dark gray, free from grit, but contains a small 
amount of limonite. 

Farther up the gentle slope the Big Clifty sandstone out- 
crops. Considerable clay could be removed without having to 
strip off any sandstone. 

The following tests show the character of this shale. (Lab. 
No. 2450) : 

Lime carbonate Appreciable 

Working quality Good 

Plasticity ...* Good 

Water of plasticity 25.2% 

Slaking time 6 minutes 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 154 

Air shrinkage (linear) 3 5 

Color after firing Red 

Steel hard WO*" C. 

Fire Shrinkage A'bsorption 

% % 

950" C 2.5 15.2 

1050° C 4. 12.4 ♦ 

1150° C 4. 11.7 

1190° C 3.6 89 

1240° C Viscous 

This clay fires to a good red color, but is not very dense 
burning. It should make good brick and probably hollow blocks. 

West Point. The plant of the West Point Brick Co. is lo- 
cated on the Illinois Central and the L. II. & St. L. R. R., on 
the southwestern edge of the town. 

♦This is not the same locality as that of the same name near Cloverport, 


The company has twenty-two acres of clay land, and the 
clay is a Hood-plain deposit of brownish color, containing scat- 
tered pebbles of chert and other material. 

Tig. IE. Viggine clay with 

The clay is excavated with a steam shovel, and hauled in 
tram cars up to the plant where it is passed through a roller 
disintegrator, and a pug mill. Molding is doue in a stiff-mud 
Gide-cut machine, which also has an attachment on the die for 
making rough -texture brick. 

The brick are dried in a tunnel drier, and then fired in 
circular down draft kilns, of which the company has six, each 
32 feet in diameter. Firing takes about 8 to 9 days, and the 
temperature reached, as determined by the pyrometer, is be- 
tween 1650° and 1700°F. 

The products consist of common brick, and rough-texture 
brick, and these are marketed throughout the state. 

H.\RT County 

Clay-hearing Formations. This county contains some clays 
that are o£ considerable interest. 

That portion of the county lying south of the Green River 
has little but residual clay derived from limestone. 


North of the river there are formations of the Chester series 
consisting of clays and sandstones, while overlying these uncon- 
formably is the Pottsville conglomerate. The contact between 
the Pottsville and Chester is a very uneven surface of erosion, 
and in the Bonnieville region, east of the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railroad, there is, as has been earlier pointed out by Gard- 
ner an area of several square miles where the Pottsville rests 
almost upon the St. Louis limestone. 

The most interesting and also important of the clay de- 
posits in Hart County are located in the Bonnieville area. 

Gardner (Ref. 13) has noted a large number of localities, 
and the most promising ones were visited during the fieldwork 
on which this present report is based, 

Mr. Gardner had the advantage of seeing sections in freshly 
dug test pits, but still the samples obtained in the summer of 
1921 may be regarded as fairly representative. 

There are certain generalities which can be made regarding 
the Hart County clays, based partly on our own observations 
and partly on Gardner 's. 

They all overlie the St. Louis limestone and in turn under- 
lie the Pottsville conglomerate. The clay overlying the limestone 
is apparently a sedimentary deposit, of variable color, high 
plasticity, and sometimes banded. 

In the upper part of this deposit there are found pockets 
of the dense white clay known as Indianaite, which may be mixed 
with colored clavs, which occasionallv show similar texture. 

It is not quite clear how much of these materials Mr. Gard- 
ner includes under the name of kaolin. He applies it beyond 
doubt to the white Indianaite, and also seems to include certain 
stained clays which could not be called kaolin. 

It is certainly significant that the white clay occurs in 
proximity to the Pottsville conglomerate and may represent a 
replacement of it, as is known to be t?ie case in Indiana. A point 
which would seem to confirm this is a statement by Gardner, 
quoted by Easton (Ref. 10, p. 723) to the effect that the '* white 
clay deposits feather out into the conglomerate as has been shown 
by exposures made in tunneling." 

Gardner also states that this "kaolin" has been experiment- 
ed with in the manufacture of whiteware, with excellent re* 


suits. Be this as it may, none of the observations made in the 
summer of 1921 make us feel warranted in assuming that the 
white clay occurs in commercial quantities. 

Bonnieville, The following localities were visited in the 
Bonnieville district : 

John Goldsmith Property, On the land of John Goldsmith, 
3 1/2 miles southeast of Bonnieville, the so-called kaolin is ex- 
posed in a gully 400 yards southwest of the house. In texture 
it much resembles the Indianaite from Lawrence County, In- 
diana, but the colors are white, yellow and brown. There is also 
considerable limonite and manganese mixed through the clay in 
the form of lumps and bands. The clay where exposed is about 
4 feet thick, and is overlain by about 4 feet of Pottsville con- 
glomerate. It is probably not of commercial value. 

This locality is about 1 mUe north of the Mrs. J. B. Isaacs 
place and about 2 miles west of the Mrs. John B. Moss farm. 

No sample was tested. 

Mrs. J, B. Isaacs Property. This is located 41/^ miles south- 
east of Bonnieville, and 21,^ miles east of Dividing Ridge sta- 
tion on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The clay is ex- 
posed on the north side of the hill 400 yards south of the house. 

The section shows: 

Covered hillside with "float" houlders of Pottsville 

conglomerate 30 ft. 

Gray clay with red specks 2.5 ft. 

Light drab clay, of good plasticity 10 It. 


The St. Louis limestone may lie not far below but is not 
exposed. Excavation of the clay could not be carried very far 
into the hill without encountering considerable overburden. 

A sample of the clay (Lab. No. 2406) tested showed it to 
be of non-calcareous nature and good plasticity. It has a linear 
air shrinkage of 8%, and fires to a red brick at 950° C. with 
1.9% absorption. It fires too dense for common brick, but pos- 
sibly could be used for drain tile if mixed with a more sandy 
clay. It is not a fire clay. 

An analysis of the material given by Gardner shows 5.04% 
of ferric oxide, and 10.43% of fusible impurities. 


8, J, Murray Place, This is located 3 miles southeast of 


Gardner also mentioned this locality and gave the section 


Ft. In. 

Soil 2 

Soil, sand, clay 3 

Stained kaolin 3 10 

White kaolin ^ 1 

Stained kaolin 10 

There are some old test pits near Mr. Murray's house, and 
he reports that different parties have from time to time en- 
deavored to work this material but without success. He further 
states that one of the test pits showed 6 feet of kaolin with 12 
feet overburden, in another 7 feet overburden, and in still an- 
other 15 feet. The clay, Mr. Murray states, changed constantly 
m color in all the test holes, being white, brown, yellow, pur- 
ple, pink, etc. In places the clay also shows what appears to be 
a manganese stain. 

It is true that some parts of the deposit as pointed out by 
Gardner from a chemical analysis will run low in iron oxide, 
but the deposit as a whole, can hardly be regarded as suited 
for the manufacture of any high-grade products. 

James Biggs Place, Mr. Riggs' farm is located 4 miles west 
of Bonnieville, and the clays are exposed in gullies east of his 

The clay here lies just above what is probably the Big Clifty 
sandstone, the section exposed in the hill slope showing. 

iSoil containing pebibles from the Pottsyille 

Drab clay 10 ft. 

Chester sandstone 8 ft. 

Covered 3 ft. 

St. Louis limestone 20 ft. 

This is apparently the deposit to which Gardner assigned a 
thickness of 15 feet (Ref. 13, p. 41), but at present only 10 feet 
can be seen. The sandstone, below the clay, and now exposed, 
is presumably in that part of his section marked as ** Covered.'* 

The upper part of the exposed clay resembles the ** kaolin'' 
of this region, and again lies just below the Pottsville conglomer- 


ate. It is, however, a little more plastic than the ** kaolin'' found 
at other points. The greater thickness of the clay here may be 
due to its representing a thicker bed lying at a lower horizon 
than that seen at other places under the Pottsville. 

The clay, which is drab colored and fairly uniform in 
shade, is not being used. The following partial tests give an 
idea of the physical characters of the material (Lab. No. 2412) 
from the upper part of the deposit. 

It is a clay of good placticity, and non-calcerous character, 
which has a linear air shrinkage of 7.5 per cent. It fires to a 
steel hard, red brick at 950° C, with a fire shrinkage of 7.5 per 
cent, and 1.% absorption. This shrinkage is a little high for 
this low temperature. At 1050° C. the shrinkage is about the 
same and the absorption Sl^o- 

The day could probably be used for common brick, drain- 
tile or possibly even common red earthenware, but a clay of 
lower fire shrinkage should be mixed with it. 

A second sample (Lab. No. 2413) from the lower part of 
the deposit, was also subjected to a partial test. It is a very 
smooth, non-calcareous clay of excellent plasticity. The clay 
has an air shrinkage of 7%, and at 950°C. fires to a steel hard, 
red body with 6.5% fire shrinkage and 2.2 ^{^ absorption. Its 
fire shrinkage is a little high, and it should be mixed with a 
clay of lower shrinkage. 

It could probably be used for drain tile, and common red 

J, Caswell Place. Four miles east of Bonnieville at High- 
land's Mill there are extensive lenses of clay lying above the St. 
Louis limestone on Mr. Caswell 's farm. The clay varies in color 
from drab to yellow and red, and contains limonite concretions 
as well as being stained with manganese. Several years ago a pit 
10 feet deep was sunk in the clay without reaching bottom. 

No sample of this was tested, but it is probably a red-burn- 
ing clay. 

Eosa Highbangh Place. This property adjoins the pre- 
ceding Caswell property, and on the former place, about 200 
yards from Mr. Caswell's house, the same type of clay as de- 
scribed above outcrops. 


There is at least 10 feet of day exposed in a gully which fur- 
rows the gentle hill slope. The St. Louis limestone outcrops at 
the base of the hill, while above the clay is found disintegrated 
Pottsville material, so that the Chester sandstone is apparently 
absent. A considerable quantity of clay could be removed with- 
out having to strip off much overburden, but the deposit is un- 
fortunately rather far from the railroad. 

The clay is red, very dense and tough, and contains scat- 
tered stains of manganese. A few specimens of a cup coral 
Zaphrentis were found in it. The following tests were made 
on this material (Lab. No. 2422) : 

Lime carbonate ^ None 

Working qualities Good 

Plasticity Good 

Water of pUurticity 37.1% 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 509 

Air shrinkage, linear 9% 

Color after firing ^ Red 

Steel hard 950" C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

70 70 

950' C 6.5 4.5 

losa* C 7.5 3.1 

The clay burns to good color. Its shrinkage is somewhat 
high, and it should be mixed with a more sandy clay. As it has a 
high modulus of rupture it could stand the addition of such a 

It represents a type that could^ be used for brick, tile or 
hollow blocks. 

Similar clay is said to occur on the farms of W. Cruse .and 
W, W. Thorp. 

Pleas Lively Farm. About 1 1/4 miles southeast of Bon- 
nieville on the Pleas Lively farm there is a good exposure of 
clay in the road cut. The section does not show a very thick 
deposit, although boring may prove a larger quantity than ap- 
pears on the surface. It is : 

Red clay, apparently residual ^ 5 ft. 

Yellow gray shaly clay 5 ft. 


A few tests were made of this clay, (Lab. No. 2405.) 


This is a smooth clay of good plasticity which fires to a red 

color. Additional properties are : 

Linear air shrinkage 6.6% 

Fire shrinkage ^BO'* C .5% 

lOBO'C 1.5% 

AbsoriJtion &60*C 14.3% 

1050'C 11.7% 

It is probable that this could be used for brick, tile and 
possibly common red earthenware. 

Mrs. John Moss Place. This lies about 5 miles southeast 
of Bonnieville and is referred to in Gardner's report (Ref. 13, 
p. 31) as the Philip Moss place. 

The test pit made here is now filled, but is said to be the first 
place where the '* kaolin" was noticed in this region. Judging 
from the pieces picked up around the pit, the clay is some of the 
whitest that was found in this region, but the pure white ma- 
terial was only 1 foot thick, according to local reports, and 
hence did not occur in commercial quantities. 

Below the white material were clays of all colors and these 
have also been referred to as kaolins, although they are not 
properly to be classed as such. A bed of coal was found below 
the clay. 

These clays lie just below the Pottsville conglomerate, while 
in a hollow below the old pit is an outcrop of sandstone about 
40 feet thick, which is probably of Chester age. 

Some 15 or 20 years ago some tunnels were driven into the 
hill below the conglomerate and about 3 carloads of clay are 
said to have been shipped from them. 

It will be of interest in this connection to quote two analyses 

of the white clay which are given by Gardner (Ref. 13, p. 32) : 

I. II. 

Silica 48 09 42.32 

Alumina 34.66 36.92 

•Ferric oxide .78 .62 

•Lime .27 .21 

Magnesia .23 .08 

Potash .74 .47 

Soda .30 .18 

THanic oxide .25 tr. 

Ignition 12.68 16.69 

Moisture 2.39 2.71 


The second one of these shows a much hig'her percentage 
of loss on ignition than kaolinite would, and it is probable that 
some other hydrated aluminum silicate is present. 

J, W. Priddy Place, Five miles west of Bonnieville is a hill 
known as Priddy 's Knob, which is the second highest elevation 
in the county, and is capped with Pottsville conglomerate. 

Here on the farm of J. H. Priddy, which lies between the 
old W. G. W. Butler place (to be described below) and that of 
James Biggs, previously mentioned, there are found three dif- 
ferent clay horizons. 

Beginning with the St. Louis limestone at the bottom, there 
follows next above a bed of plastic clay, which is in turn covered 
by Chester sandstone. Although it appears to be 10 feet thick, 
it is not a fire clay, and so it would hardly pay to work it. The 
Chester sandstone is at least 50 feet thick. On top of it there 
is exposed on the hill slope 10 feet of drab plastic clay with red 
specks, and which in appearance is very similar to a clay oc- 
curring at the corresponding horizon at the top of a hill on the 
Butler place. Above this clay the section for 20 feet is covered 
by wash material, which is topped by 5 feet of ** kaolin'' lying 
just below the conglomerate. It is quite impure here and con- 
tains much iron and manganese. 

A partial test was made of the upper and lower portions 
of the 10-foot bed of clay above the Chester sandstone. Lower 
part of clay (Lab. No. 2414). This is a very smooth, non-cal- 
careous gray clay of excellent plasticity. It has an air shrink- 
age of 7% and at 950° C. fires to a steel-hard body of good red 
color with an absorption of 1.7% and a fire shrinkage of 3.5%. 
It would in fact probably make a saleable product at even a 
somewhat lower temperature. At 1050° C. the clay shows a fire 
shrinkage of 3.5%, 1.5% absorption and deep red color. 

This type of clay could be used for brick, hollow blocks or 
drain tile. 

Upper part of clay, (Lab. No. 2415.) This clay is non-cal- 
careous and of good plasticity. Its air shrinkage is rather high, 
viz. 10%, and it should be mixed with a more sandy clay. At 
950° C. it fires to a steel-hard brick of good red color, 4.5% fire 
shrinkage, and 6.9% absorption. 


It could be used in making brick, draintile, hollow blocks or 
common red earthenware, but not alone. 

J. W, Priddy Place. This lies 6 miles southwest of Bonnie- 
ville and 8 miles southwest of Upton at what was referred to as 
the W. G. W. Butler place by Gardner. (Ref. 13, p. 45.) Since 
the date of Gardner's report the farm has been divided, Mr. 
J. W. Priddy now having the north section of the old Butler 
place, and Mrs. Louisa Priddy the south section. Gardner's 
observations were made on the latter half, on the hillside south 
of the old drain, but this is now covered by wash. 

The clay beds at present can be studied in a ravine, on its 
north side, 400 yards east of the Lone Star schoolhouse, and 150 
yards east of J. W. Priddy 's new house the clays outcrop es- 
sentially as given in Gardner 's report, which is : 

Chester sandstone 20 ft 

Droib, plastic clay 10 ft. 

White sandy shale 2 ft. 

Big Cllfty' sandstone 75 ft. 

Drab plastic clay 10 ft. 

White sandy shale 2 ft. 

St. Louis limestone 6 ft 

The plastic clays which overlie the St. Louis limestone do 
not run very uniform, and moreover the clay could not very well 
be worked because of the heavy overburden of sandstone. 

Above the sandstone is another clay bed which is better 
exposed and more extensive. This is a gray plastic clay which is 
at least 10 feet thick, and which is separated from the sand- 
stone by about 2 feet of white siliceous shale. The slope for 
about 20 feet above this clay is covered, but above this there 
are indications of more gray clay, which has lumps and streaks 
of a brown plastic clay in it. 

A partial test of the upper clay bed shows that the ma- 
terial (Lab. No. 2404) is non-calcareous and has good plasticity. 
It has a linear air shrinkage of 8.5 per cent. It fires to a light 
red or pink brick, with only 1^ fire shrinkage at 950° C. and 
1050° C. The absorption at th€ lower temperature is 13.1 per 
cent and at the higher temperature 10.8^. 


It is to be classed as a brick clay but should be mixed with 
a more sandy material. Further tests might demonstrate that 
it might be useful for other purposes. 

The deposit is located rather far from the railroad. 

Henderson County 

This county is underlain by Pennsylvanian formations, 
with the exception of a strip bordering the Ohio Eiver along 
the northern margin of the county. This strip is underlain 
by flood-plain deposits which are utilized in the manufacture 
of brick and tile. 

Clays Associated With Coal. Since many of the coals of 
the western coal field have shales or clays either above or below 
them, and since these materials associated with coals are some- 
times of a refractory character, it is desirable to get all avail- 
able information on this point. 

Easton in an earlier report (Ref. 10, pp. 843-846) has 
given some partial data from several localities in this county, 
although in most cases he does not appear to include figures 
showing the thickness of the bed. These are : 

Baskett. Pittsburg Coal Company. Baskett Mine. A 
dark gray clay 3 to 3Mj feet thick underlying the coal. It is 
soft, plastic, and has 5% air shrinkage. The tensile strength 
is 84 pounds per square inch. It fires to a yellow color. The 
clay is said to have puffed up when fired at cone 1, but this was 
probably due to its being fired too rapidly. It contains both 
carbonaceous matter and pyrite. 

Bluff City, John Archbold Coal Company. A dark gray 
clay of good plasticity. It has 9% air shrinkage, 10 pounds per 
square inch tensile strength, and fires to a red-brown color. Un- 
less slowly fired it will puff up in burning. It is not a refrac- 
tory clay, but is probably to be classed as a brick clay. 

Smith's Mills. Smith Mills Mine. A dark bluish plastic 
clay underlying the coal. It has 8% air shrinkage, 63 pounds 
per square inch tensile strength, and fires to a yellow color. 
It swelled at cone 1, hence would have to be slowly and properly 
heated to prevent this. 

Spottsville. Green River Coal Company, Spottsville Mine. 
Clay under No. 9 coal, with an average thickness of 4 feet, and 


a range of 18 inches to 6 feet. This is a dark gray, plastic clay, 
with 6% air shrinkage, and 72 pounds per square inch tensile 
strength. It fires to a yellow color, but swelled and cracked 
in the operation. 

Brick and Tile Industry. The two active elay-working 
plants of Henderson County are both located at Henderson, 
and operated by Kleymeyer and Klutey, This firm has a brick 
and tile works 1 mile southwest of Henderson, the plant having 
been established in 1880. The product is drain tile. 

Clay is obtained from an alluvial deposit a short distance 
from the works, and seems to run in pockets, the rest of the de- 
posit being sand. Borings carried through the clay to a depth 
of 30 feet run into quicksand. 

The clay is mixed in soak pits before putting it through 
the tile machine. The tile are dried on pallet racks, and firing 
is done in 3 circular down-draft kilns. The grates of the kilns 
are supplied with forced draft, the pressure being derived from 
an electrically driven fan, and the air distributed to the kilna 
through a 24-inch sewer pipe laid below the yard floor. Burn- 
ing takes 314 to 4i/^ days. The pipe shrinks 1V4 inches in 13. 

The second plant of this firm is located on the southeastern 
edge of town, and the product consists of common brick. 

FlK. U. Brick kilns. Kleymeyer and Klutey, MOfl-niud plant, Ucoderson. 


The clay pit is a shallow excavation on a gentle slope ad- 
joining the works, and the clay has not been dug to a depth of 
over 4 feet. It is of a sandy nature, and at times shows an in- 
distinct banding. The elay is mostly of a yellow color, slightly 
calcareous, and contains a number of lime carbonate concre- 
tions, which begin to be numerous at about 4 feet depth. The 
clay fires to a red color. 

At the works it passes through rolls, soft-mud brick ma- 
chine, tunnel driers, and then to rectangular kilns. There are 

Klutey. suft-muil brick plar 

two Dutch kilns, which require about 12 days to fire, and are 
supplied with forced draft in the fire boxes. In addition there 
are two up-draft closed rectangular kilns, of 130,000 capacity 
each. These are said to fire in 7 days. Burning is checked with 
a thermoelectric pyrometer, and the temperature reaches 1800°- 
1900°F. The clay fires to a good red brick, 

E. W. Suss formerly made brick at Baskett, but the yard 
has not been in operation for four years. 

Hopkins County 
The bed rock formations of Hopkins County are all of Penn- 
sylvanian age, with alluvial deposits resting on them here and 
there, or with residual clays in places resting on the bed rock. 


There would consequently seem to be four possible types 
of material to interest the clay worker, viz.: Alluvial clays, 
residual clays, Pennsylvanian red-burning clays, and fire clays 
also of Pennsylvanian age. 

Alluvial Clays. No clays of this type are worked in the 
county. They may form local deposits along some of the 
streams, and more particularly along the Tradewater River. 

Residual Clays. Some of the clays utilized by the clay 
plants of Madisonville might be regarded as of this nature, in 
that they probably represent mellowed shale deposits which 
have been softened by weathering. Otherwise no residual clays 
are worked in the county. They could probably be found at 
different points to supply small plants. 

Pennsylvanian Shales, As the field work carried on during 
the summer was largely a reconnaissance, it was not possible to 
make a detailed examination of the coal measures of the western 
field, or even of Hopkins County. From what was seen, how- 
ever, one feels that there is a possibility of finding some good 
shales in the county. Around Madisonville, for example, there 
were several good ** showings," as described below, but thick 
sections were not always available. 

Pontine Mines, At the No. 9 mine of the Pontiac Coal 
Company, 4 miles south of Madisonville, there has recently been 
sunk a slope which crosses a series of shale beds overlying the 
No. 9 coal, and from which the following section was obtained : 

Red residual clay 3 ft. 

Ked and yellow plastic clay 15 ft 

Smooth shale (called "soapstone") 4 ft. 

Light gray shale with .pebbly concretions 20 It. 

Black fossiliferous, pyritic, shale 2.5-3 ft 

No. 9 coal 4 ft 


A sample (Lab. No. 2425) was taken of the 20 feet of shale 
above the pyritic bed, and tested with the following results : 

Lime carbonate None 

Plasticity Fair 

Working character Fair 

Water of plasticity 10.9i% 


Slaking time 6 minutes 

Average modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 77.4 

Air shrinkage, linear 3% 

Color after firing Red 

Steel hard 1000" C. 

Fire Shrinkage 







950' C 




1050' C 




1070' C 


.— 7.0 



1150 • C 

1190 • C 

The plasticity of the clay is sufficient to work it in a brick 
machine of the stiflP-mud type. The air shrinkage is low and 
the clay fires to a good body. The fire shrinkage is low, and 
the absorption is not excessive. The transverse strength is not 

This clay should make good common brick and probably 
hollow blocks. It is not a fire clay, as it is overfired at 1130° C. 
It might also work for paving brick. 

A separate partial test was made of the plastic clay (Lab. 
No. 2416) noted in the upper part of the section given above, 
and which clay is probably shale that has been softened by 
weathering. There is some doubt as to the quantity of material 
available, but it could easily be mixed with the underlying 

Clay from above No. 9 coal, at Pontiac Mines, 4 miles south 
of Madisonville. 

The clay is non-calcareous and of good plasticity. The air 
shrinkage is T^^- It fires to a steel-hard brick of good red color 
at 950° C. with 4% fire shrinkage, and 9% absorption. It could 
probably be used for common brick or hollow blocks. 

At the No. 1 mine of the Pontiac Coal Co., a somewhat dif- 
ferent bed of shale is exposed. Here at the entrance to the 
mine the section shows: 




>f Madleonvllle. 

Shale, very smooth 6-7 


No 12 coal S 

Marl „ 1 

Ltmestone 3 

No. 11 coal 6 

UWIerolay, exposed 5-6 


The whole series dips slightly, so that the underclay is best 
exposed in the sides of the cut at the entrance to the tunnel. 
There it presents the appearance of a light-gray soft shale, mot- 
tled with limonite stains. Whether it continues of this charac- 
ter in from the outcrop is not known, but at the expoB^^re men- 
tioned it looks like a very desirable material to work, and could 
be mined in connection with the coal. Moreover in the strip 
pits near Madisonville it could be easily obtained. 

The following tests of this material (Lab. No. 2426) indi- 
cate that this material has some rather desirable characteristics : 

Working qualities Good 

Lime carbonate — None 

Plasticity Very good 

Water of Plasticity 17.7% 

Slaking time 19 minutes 

Average modulus rupture, lbs. per sq. in 224 

Air shrinkage, linear 8% 

Color after firing (Red 

Steel bard 950" C. 













Fire Shrinkage 
















The air shrinkage is a little high, but the plasticity and 
modulus of rupture good. Fire shrinkage not excessive. It 
should work for brick, hollow block or drain tile, and possibly 
paving brick. It is also worth trying for common stoneware. 
It is not a fire clav. 

Stanley Coal Company. This company has a mine located 
3/4 mile northwest of Morton's Gap, on the west side of the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad. A tunnel has been driven 
on the No. 9 coal. The roof of the coal is a carbonaceous and 
siliceous shale, while below the coal is a 4-foot bed of gray shale. 
Unfortunately the mine was not in operation, and consequent- 
ly we were not able to get a sample representing the full depth 


of the deposit. That taken came from the upper foot, and may 
h^ve been slightly weathered. 

Such as it is represents a non-calcareous clay, of very 
smooth character, but containing numerous tiny mica scales. Its 
other properties are: 

Plasfticlty Good 

Slaking time .,. 19 minutes 

Air ahrinkage (Unear) 5% 

Color after firing, reddish bu£F, changes later to deep red. 

Steel hard 950' O. 

, ' ^ Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

950** C 1.6 10.9 

1090' C 5.0 3.3 

1190'* C 5.6 5.3 

The material is not refractory. If any quantity could be 
mined with the coal it might be used for common or face brick 
or drain tile. 

Hart Coal Corporation, At the mine of this company 1 
mile south of Madisonville there is a somewhat strong outcrop- 
ping of a purplish clay shale in the railroad cut near the shaft. 
Nothing is known of the exact extent of the material as no bor- 
ings were made, but some local engineers believe there is a con- 
siderable tonnage of it. 

The material (Lab. No. 2427) is non-calcareous in charac- 
ter, and of good plasticity. It molds easily, and has a linear air 
shrinkage of 6%. 

When gives a nice. reddish-buflP brick at 950° C. 
which has 2% fire shrinkage and is steel hard, while at 1050° C. 
it is red, with 6.5% fire shrinkage and only 2.8% absorption. . 

The material could probably be used for common and face 
brick, hollow blocks and drain tile. 

Fire Clays. No true fire clays were found among any of 
the samples examined from Hopkins County. 

Hutchinson (Eef. 20) in describing the coals of Hopkins 
County refers to fire clays in several places, but offers no evi- 
dence to prove that they are really of refractory character. 


Thus he states that they occur under coals Nos. 9, 10, 11, 
12, 14, 15c and 15e. We found no evidence of their existence 
under coals 9, 11 and 12. 

Brick and Tile Industry, There are two active clay plants 
located near Madisonville, one making bi^ick, the other drain 
tile and hollow blocks. 

W, L. Hall Plant. This is located in the southwest part 
of Madisonville, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad coal 
switch. The product consists of common brick, face brick, and 
low-grade fire brick, which is sold chiefly to a local market. 
There are two pits which are in different parts of the same de- 
posit. The material used is a partly weathered clay shale most- 
ly of yellow and reddish color, while in the bottom of the pit 
the beds are harder, less weathered and of a bluish and red 

One pit shows the following section : 

Ft In. 

Soil 10 

Brownlah red clay 6 

Red sandy clay 1 6 

Yellow clay 5 

Drab shaly clay 5 

Most of the clay fires to a red color, but bluish clay shale in 
the bottom of one pit fires to a buflf color and is termed a fire 

In practice all of the clays except the **fire clay*' are mixed 
together but the latter is dug separately. 

The clay is gathered under a drying shed, crushed in a dry 
pan, screened and then molded in a dry-preas machine. The 
bricks arc fired in Dutch kilns. A sample of the so-called fire 
clay was examined and the material (Lab. No. 2429) was found 
to be calcareous in spots. 

It is of excellent plasticity, but has a somewhat high linear 
air shrinkage of 9%. It fires to a buff color but is not a fire 
clay. It could be used for face brick but is not recommended 
for tile. 

At 950° C. it gave 3.5^ fire shrinkage and 9.2% absorption. 

At 1050°C. the fire shrinkage was 4% and absorption 4.8%. 


It would be advisable to mold it dry press instead of by 
a plastic process on account of its high air shrinkage. 

Madison Drain Tile Company. This plant is located ou the 
eastern edge of Madisonville. The product consists of hollow 
block and drain tile. 

The deposit of clay, which adjoins the works is a weathered 
shale of Pennsylvanian age, and the section is as follows : 

Gray cUy Bbale .. 

1 ft 
6 ft. 
12 ft. 

The clay is loosened up by a plow and then hauled to the 
plant by means of a scraper operated by a long cable. Only the 
5-foot layer is used, the surface soil being first stripped off. 

The clay is pnt through a rolls, and then a pugmill, after 
which it is molded in a stiff-mud machine. The ware is dried 
on racks under sheds, and firing is done in 2 circular down-draft 
kilns equipped with a thermo-electric pyrometer. About 48 
hours are required for water smoking and 72 hours more to reach 
the finishing temperature of 1850°-1950°F. The ware is liable 
to develop a scum especially if Bet in the kiln too moist, but 


careful drying eliminates most of this trouble. The clay fires 
to a good red color and the product is steel hard. 

A partial test was made of the lower shale which is not used. 
The material (Lab. No. 2428) which is non-calcareous showed the 
following properties : 

Plaatlclty Ehccellent 

Air shrinkage (linear) 7% 

Color after firing Red 

Steel hard 950* C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

950" C 1. 11.7 

1050' C 7. 3.2 

1150" C 7.5 3.5 

This appears like a clay that should work for red brick, 
drain tile or hollow block. It is not refractory. 

Livingston County 

This county contains residual clays derived from Missis- 
si ppian rocks, which could be used for common brick. Flood 
plain clays may also occur under the flat terraces bordering the 
Ohio River, and represent the type used for common brick and 
drain tile. 

Fobs refers (Ref. 12) to shales of light green and purple 
color, 2 3/4 miles southeast of Lola near the Livingston County 
line. They are said to be plastic and of non-calcareous charac- 
ter, but no data are given as to their extent or physical charac- 

A deposit of historic rather than commercial interest at the 
present time is the Stevens fire clay mine which was operated 
a number of years ago by the Western Clay and Mining Co. of 
Kewanee, 111. It is located on the border line between Living- 
ston and Crittenden counties, 2 miles a little south of east from 

The material is a siliceous residual clay which is said to oc- 
cupy a fault fissure between limestone and quartzite. (Ref. 28) 

At the present time the workings are inacciessible as noth- 
ing has been done there for some years. 

C of K— 4 


Fobs has noted (Bef. 12) that within a radius of 3 miles 
of Smithland on the east side of the Cumberland River, there 
are exposures of bard siliceous fire clay, resting unconformably 
on Mississippian limestones, and capped by ferruginous sand- 
stone and chert conglomerate. They are supposed to be a part 
of the Lafayette formation. No tests of the material are given, 
but it is said to have been formerly shipped to Illinois. The de- 
posits do not appear to have been worked for a number of years. 

Muhlenberg County 

This county is underlain by coal-measures rock except a 
small piece in its southwestern corner where rocks of the Chester 
series occur. 

Shales Associated With Coals. Samples of the shale or clay 
underlying the coal beds were collected from a number of mines 
in this county to determine whether any of them might be re- 
fractorj\ None proved to be of this character, but the few tests 
made on them showed that in many cUses they could be used 
in the manufacture of structural clay products. 

Central City, Gibraltar Coal Mining Company, located on 
Illinois Central Railroad, lyo miles east of Central City, and 
working No. 9 coal. The under clay is a hard, dark gray, mod- 
erately gritty shale, containing leaf impressions, and having a 
thickness of 21/, feet. It is very similar to the under clay of 
No. 9 coal at the Madison Coal Company's Mine near Central 

The following analj^sis of claj'' associated with the coal in 

the mine of the Frankel Coal Company, has been supplied by 

C. E. Bales: 

Silica 61.24 

Alumina 25.83 

Ferric oxide 3.12 

Lime 104 

Magnesia 14 

Alkalies 90 

Igaitilon lo38 7.76 


This is evidently not a refractory clay if the composition 
throughout is like that indicated by the above analysis. 


Madison Coal Corporation, located on the Louisville and 
Nashville and the Illinois Central railroads. The No. 9 coal is 
being worked. The under clay is a hard, dark gray, slightly 
gritty shale, with leaf impressions and slickensides. It is 21/^ 
feet thick. The material (Lab. No. 2452) is non-calcareous and 
carbonaceous. Its plasticity is rather low, and the linear air 
shrinkage 2.5%. It burns to a red color, and could be used 
for making common brick, but it would be necessary to fire it 
slowly between 800° and 900° C. in order to get rid of the car- 
bon in the shale and prevent swelling and black coring. 

At this same mine coal No. 11 is also worked. The under- 
clay here is soft when wet and weathered, of dark gray color, 
and somewhat iron-stained. It is only 18 inches thick. 

This material (Lab. No. 2451) is a non-calcareous shale, 
which develops only moderate placticity when ground and mixed 
with water. It fires to a red color, and can only be regarded 
as a common-brick material. 

Meran, Pacific Coal Mining Company, located 3 miles 
southwest of Central City on the Illinois Central Railroad and 
working No. 9 coal. The underclay which is 2-3 feet thick is 
a dark gray very hard, sandy shale, with limonite stains and 
small specks of muscovite mica. When exposed to the weather 
it changes to a pale green color and slakes to small scaly parti- 

The material (Lab. No. 2453) is calcareous in character and 
grinds up with water to a very lean mass. It has 2.5% linear 
air shrinkage, and fires to a red but not to a very hard body 
at 950° C. It is not a very desirable material even for common 
brick, nor is it a fire clay. 

Mercer. Mercer Coal Company, working No. 9 coal. The 
underclay is a dark gray, slightly gritty, hard shale, which gets 
soft and sticky when wet. It is evidently similar to the under- 
clay of the Madison Coal Company of Central City. The miners 
use this clay to plaster up their stoves. 

Oihraltar Coal Company, located along Illinois Central 
Bailroad, and working No. 9 coal. The under clay, which is 4 
feet thick, is dark graj^, very hard and slightly gritty. When 
ground and wet it becomes quite plastic and is similar to the 


same bed found under No. 9 coal at the Madison Coal Company's 
mine, Central City. 

Brick Industry. The only brick plant in operation in Muh- 
lenberg County is that of the Central City Brick Company, lo- 
cated y2 mile northeast of Central City on the Illinois Central 
Railroad. The product is dry-pressed brick for common use, 
and supplies a local market. 

The clay is probably a residual deposit which shows a sec- 
tion of: 

Soil 1-3 ft. 

YeUow loam 3 ft. 

Clay and angular rock fragments 

The loam contains small streaks of a whitish clay. 

The clay, after stripping off the soil, is cut up by a disk 
harrow and then hauled in wagons to the plant. There it passes 
through rolls, screen and is then dry-pressed. Burning is done 
in two Dutch kilns and takes about 12 days. The brick are of 
a pale red color but steel-hard. 

Ohio County 

All of Ohio County is underlain by Pennsylvanian forma- 
tions with the exception of a narrow tongue of Mississippian in 
the eastern part which follows the valley of the' Rough River 
nearly half way across the county. 

Gardner in his report on the Hartford quadrangle, (Ref. 
3), states that clay deposits of three types occur, viz.: fire clay, 
clay shale and residual clay. No tests of these are given. 

The same author remarks that at one time considerable fire 
clay was shipped from Horton to P. Bannon and Company in 
Louisville. It was mined 1^/^ miles east of town on the A. V. 
Thomson farm. None has been shipped for some years. 

Clay shale is said to be common in the form of interstrati- 
fied members of the coal measures, and those free from concre- 
tions are easily accessible, but no specific localities are listed. 

Residual clay of use for common brick can be found, and 
it has from time to time been used locally. 

In the general section given by Gardner there is indicated 
a 15-foot shale over coal 10, and plastic clays under the Schultz- 


town, Beaverdam and Millsite coals, but no tests of these are 

Several localities of clay are also quoted by Easton. (Ref. 
10, p. 874.) 

One of these is on the Powers Place at Narrows, on the 
Illinois Central Railroad between Owensboro and Horse Branch. 
The material is thought to be a partly weathered shale and is 
said to fire to a white color. Another sample from the same 
place fired to a creamy yellow. 

Along Boards Switch, 3 miles southeast of Fordsville, a 
6-foot bed of clay is noted as lying above the Mitchell limestone. 
It fires to a dark red color, is nearly vitrified at cone 01 and 
viscous at cone 6. 

Gardner (Ref. 13, p. 217) notes a clay from Bald Knob 

Church, Caney precinct, on the Pinchico Road. It is said to lie 

2 feet below a coal bed, but the thickness of the clay is not given. 

The analysis which he publishes indicates that the clay may be 

of a buff-burning color, although this can not be predicted with 

certainty. It is : 

Silica 62.76 

Alumina 26.42 

Ferric oxide 1.58 

Lime 32 

Magnesia tr. 

Potash 91 

Soda 26 

Ignition and moist 7.73 


Gardner also refers to a 4-foot bed of dark gray clay under 
the No. 9 coal at Coffman. No tests of this are given, but the 
chemical analysis suggests that it is red-burning and not refrac- 

Taylor County 

Gardner has referred (Ref. 13, p. 54) to the deposits of so- 
called kaolin along the border of Larue and Taylor counties. 
They all lie below the Pottsville and above the St. Louis lime- 
stone and are similar in their physical characters to those de- 
scribed from around Bonnieville. They lie too far from lines 
of transportation to be of much commercial value. 


Residual clay from the St. Louis limestone occurs at a num- 
ber of points and could be used for common brick if necessary. 
Easton (Kef. 10, p. 883) refers to one deposit on the J. T. 
Purvis place on the Campbellsville road, li^ miles southeast of 
Hibernia. The material is described as having good plasticity, 
and firing to a red color. It has 5% air shrinkage, a tensile 
strength of 71.5 pounds per square inch, and a fire shrinkage of 
7^. It vitrifies below cone 1 and is viscous at cone 6. 

At Campbellsville there used to be a small brick plant lo- 
cated on the property purchased for the Russell Creek Academy. 
The material is a residual clay. This was used to make hand- 
molded brick. At the time some new school buildings were to 
be erected the authorities of the institution installed a soft-mud 
brick machine operated by a tractor. The bricks were fired in 
a scove kiln and then used in the new school buildings. The 
machinery is now for sale. The procedure is a common one in 
ndany regions, where clay is easily obtained and there is a temp- 
orary demand for brick. 

Union County 

This county is completely underlain by Pennsylvanian form- 
ations with the exception of a strip of alluvial deposits along 
its western and northern edge. These alluvial deposits are 
former sediments of the Ohio River. There is also a possibility of 
finding flood plain deposits along the Tradewater River, which 
forms the southwestern boundary of the county. 

Little is known regarding shale formations in the coal 
measures as no detailed study has been made of these. The 
following data are available on this county : 

Sturgis. The Quinwin Brick and Tile Company has a plant 
on the edge of town, the product being building brick and drain- 
tile. There are about 20 acres of clay land belonging to the 
plant. The clay pit which lies just south of the works shows a 
tough, jointed clay, about 12 feet deep. It resembles the Ohio 
River clay dug at Paducah and may represent a high terrace 
deposit of the Tradewater River. Borings have shown that the 
clays runs 30 feet deep. There is some difference between the 
top and bottom clay, for the lower part of the deposit has less 


shrinkage, makes a good drain tile, but not as good colored a 
brick as the top clay. 

The clay after being dug is carried up to the adjoining 
factory by a feeder, and then passes through a rolls and pugmill. 
Molding is done in a stiff-mud machine with a revolving cutter. 
The bricks are dried in tunnels and fired in circular down-draft 
kilns of which there are two. It takes 8 days to complete the 
firing, and according to the pyrometer a temperature of 1800"P. 
is reached. The clay makes an excellent product. 

Below the No, 9 coal in the No, 2 mine of the west Kentuc- 
ky Coal Companj', is a non-ealeareous shale, which develops fair 
plasticity when worked up with water. It has 3% linear air 
shrinkage, and at 950°C. fired to a red, steel-hard body. It could 
be used in the manufacture of brick, and possibly hollow blocks. 

Uniontown. Alhorn and Waller have a drain tile works 
located on the flat land at the southwestern edge of the village. 
The clay is probably a portion of the alluvial deposit of the 

Fig. n. circular downdraft kiln, draln-Ilie plant, Uniontown. 

Ohio River, It shows a vertical jointing. The pit which is a 
shallow excavation lies about 250 yards west of the plant, and 


the clay is hauled there by wagon. Lime pebbles are not un- 
common in the clay. 

The clay is put through rolls, and then discharged onto a 
short conveyor belt which carries it to the soakpit. It is then 
shoveled into a pugmill and passes from this to a stiff-mud ma- 
chine. The tiles are dried on pallet racks. The plant is equipped 
with one circular and one rectangular kiln. The temperature 
of firing is not known. Drain tile up to 12 inches diameter are 

Henshaw. The Henshaw Brick and Tile Company has been 
in operation here. Easton (Ref. 10, p. 884) states that they 
use a dark siliceous soil, which gives a bad brick because of the 
amount of lime carbonate in it. The clay has fair plasticity and 
fires to a red but rather porous brick. 

Webster County 

Webster County is entirely underlain by Pennsylvanian 
formations which should be prospected for shale deposits similar 
to those found around Madisonville, Hopkins County. 

In addition it is bordered on the northeast by the Green 
River, and on the southwest by the Tradewater River, along 
both of which it may be possible to find flood-plain clays. 

Sebree, U. S. Bishop and Sons are operating a plant two 
miles east of Sebree on the Green River. They manufacture 
drain tile, hollow block and a few common brick. The tile are 
often shipped by boat during high water, and floated out to the 
farms where they are to be used. 

The clay is a flood-plain deposit in which the section is : 

Soil % ft. 

Yellow, red-burning clay 3 ft. 

Black clay 1 ft. 

Gray clay 30 ft. 

(10 feet of it exposed.) 

All of the clay is used after stripping off the soil. It is 
hauled to the stock shed first. When used it is put through rolls 
and pugmill before being fed to the stiff-mud machine. The 
ware is dried on pallet racks, and on the floors of a two-story 
drying shed, being left there from one to two weeks. 


Firing is done in a 30-foot circular, down-draft kiln, and 
a second one is under construction. The firing requires about 
5 days, and this is sufficient to give a good hard tile and hollow 

The clay is liable to scum both in drying and burning, but 
the lower portion of the clay deposit causes more trouble in 
this respeet than the upper part. 

The clays in the pit are mixed, although the lower one fires to 
a light pink, and the upper one to a red. The latter is also more 
plastic and has a higher shrinkage. Scattered pebbles and a 
few large lumps of both limestone and chert occur in the clay, 
but most of these are thrown out in the mining. 

Providenee. The Providence Brick Company has a yard 
located along the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, about 3/4 
mile east of town, the product of the same being common brick, 
made chiefly to supply a local market. 

Pig. ffi. Providence Brick Company, Providence. 

The material is plowed, collected by scrapers, and hauled 
to the works, where it is crushed in a revolving disintegrator, 
screened and then molded in a dry-press machine. The bricks 
are fired in rectangular kilns, and the process requires 12-14 
days. The clay bums to a pale red color, but makes a good 

Underclays of Coal Seams. A number of samples were col- 
lected from different coal mines in order to ascertain whether 


any of them were of refractory character. None of them proved 
to be fire clays, but some burned to a good red body. 

Providence, Wynn Coal Company, located 3/4 mile east of 
Providence on Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Working No. 
11 coal, which has a limestone roof. The underclay is 31^ feet 
thick, of dark gray color, slightly gritty, and not very hard. 
It has a little iron stain. In its fresh condition the material 
is a slightly calcareous, carbonaceous cl^y of poor plasticity, 
which fires to a red color, and makes a fair brick. It stands 
in rather strong contrast to the sample obtained from under 
the same coal at the Pontiac mines south of Madisonville. Weath- 
ering would undoubtedly improve it. 

Economy Mining Company, ^ mile north of Providence on 
a spur of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The clay below 
the No. 11 coal at this mine is 3 feet thick, moderately hard, 
slightly gritty and of dark gray color. It is evidently similar to 
the preceding. 

Hunter Coal Company, Mine No. 2, located i/^ mile south- 
west of Providence on the Illinois Central Railroad, and working 
No. 9 coal. The underlying material is a shale, 3^^ feet thick, 
hard when fresh, dark gray in color, and slightly gritty. When 
weathered it is soft, and shows a few limonite stains, as well as 
having a slightly salty taste, due to soluble salts. It is 5 feet 

This material does not develop very good plasticity in its 
fresh condition, but could be improved by weathering. It fires 
to a good red, hard body at 950° C. 

Highland Mining Company , located in the town of Provi- 
dence, and on both the Louisville and Nashville and the Illinois 
Central Railroads. The material under the No. 11 coal, which 
this company is working is very similar to the preceding. 

Clay. West Kentucky Coal Company, working No. 12 coal. 
In their No. 2 mine the under material is a very lean, carbonace- 
ous shale, which is not to be recomme^ided for the manufacture 
of clay products. 

Wheatoroft. West Kentucky Coal Company, working No. 
11 coal. In the No. 4 mine, the material under the coal is a shale 
which works up to a mass of fair plasticity. The linear air 
shrinkage is 3.5%. At 950°C. it fires to a red body which is 


nearly steel hard and has 0% fire shrinkage. At 1050° C. the 
body is steel hard, with 1.5% fire shrinkage and 7.7% absorp- 
tion. This material should make a good red brick, and could pos- 
sibly be used also for hollow blocks. 

"Tlie following teats of a clay from mine No. 1 were supplied toy 
C. E. Bales. 

Clay from Mine No. 1. — Olifty Consolidated Coal Company, Clay, 
Webster Co., Ky. 

•Ignition loss 11.16% 

Silica 58.05% 

Iron oxide 4.07% 

Alumina 2-3.09% 

Lime 1.48% 

Magnesia 0.26% 

Soda — potash 1.68% 

Sulphur trioxide Undetermined 

Black color, moderately gritty, slaked readily. 
Thin veinlets of coal and some pyrite present. 
Water required to make plastic mass 17%. 
Plasticity, good. 

Air shrinkage % inch to the foot 

Fire shrinkage ? inch to the foot 

Total ? (Swelled up) 

Fusible before blowpipe. 

When heated in a kiln to 2400 *" F. swelled a great deal and became 
completely vitrified. It is not a fire clay. 

•Clay from IMine No. 2. — Clilty -Consolidated Coal Company, Clay, 
Webster Co., Ky. i 

Ignition loss 8 80% ! 

Silica 67.24% ' 

Iron oxide 5.12% . ^ 

Alumina 25.96% 

Lime 0.99% 

Magnesia 0.30% 

Soda— potash 1.70% 

Sulphur trioxide Undetermined 



Black color, moderately gritty, slaked with difficulty. 

Thin veinlets of coal and some pyrite present. 

Water required to make plastic mass 16%. 

Plasticity, good. 

Air shrinkage - 6/16 inch to the foot 

Fire shrinkage 7/16 inch to the foot 

Total % inch to the foot 

Fusible before blowipipe. 

When heated in a kiln to 2400 *" F. it assumed a brown color and 
reached the state of incipient vitrification. 
No good for fire brick. 

Ashbyburg, The Clark Manufacturing Company has a 
plant located along the Green River at Ashbyburg, and is en- 
gaged in the manufacture of common brick, drain tile and hol- 
low block. The market is somewhat local, and the product can 
be easily shipped by boat along the Qreen River. 

The clay deposit which is of the flood-plain type shows the 
following section: 

Soil ~ % ft 

Gray plastic clay 35 ft. 

Black sand. 

Only 10 feet of the clay is exposed, the total thickness hav- 
ing been determined by boring. 

A mixture of the upper clay and soil is used, and the only 
visible impurities in the clay are small concretions of limonite 
which may get into the product. 

After digging the clay is piled under drying sheds. It is 
subsequently passed through rolls and pugmill into the stiflf-mud 
machine. Drying is done under sheds and requires from 4 to 
10 days, according to the weather conditions. The plant is 
equipped with 3 circular down-draft kilns, 26 to 28 feet in diame- 
ter. It takes about 4 days to bring the kiln up to 1750°F. (as 
measured by thermo-electric pyrometer) and it is held at that 
temperature for 24 hours. 

The lower clay is especially apt to develop a scum on the 
ware. Hollow blocks and common bricks are made entirely from 
the upper clay, but for drain tile the lower clay is mixed with 
the top. The clay fires to a hard product with a good ring. 




This chapter includes the territory of the Bluegrass region, 
and the surrounding rim or belt of territory, sometimes spoken 
of as the Knob country because of its peculiar topography. 

Clay-hearing Farmations. The formations which contain 
materials of value to the manufacturer of clay products are 
the following: 

1. Surface clays of Pleistocene Age. These are represented 
by alluvial deposits, like those underlying the terraces along 
Ohio River, and which are worked at Maysville for the manu- 
facture of building brick. 

2. Tertiary clays, represented by isolated deposits of the 
Irvine formation in Madison County, and of value for making 
stoneware and art pottery. 

3. Waverly shales, outcropping in a semicircle from Vance- 
burg to Louisville and containing several good red-burning 
shales such as the Rosewood, of Jefferson County, the New Provi- 
dence shale which is of great extent, and the Bedford shale found 
only in the east side of the Bluegrass region. 

One of these, the new Providence, is utilized in the manu- 
facture of common brick, hollow blocks, drain tile, paving brick, 
and red earthenware. The others can also be used. 

4. Devonian shales, as the Ohio formation, of value only 
where it has weathered to residual clay. 

5. Silurian shales as the Estill and Lulbegrud, found on 
the east side of the Bluegrass area. These are smooth, plastic, 
red-burning shales which can be utilized for building brick, hol- 
low blocks, drain tile and earthenware. 

6. Ordovician shales, like the Eden formation opposite 
Cincinnati, and the residual clays derived from the Ordovician 
limestones. These are capable of being used for building brick. 


Bath County 

The western half of the county contains residual clays de* 
rived from Ordovician limestones which could be used for brick 
manufactures, but most of them are rather remote from lines 
of transportation by rail. 

Estill Shales. Excellent exposures of Estill shales are found 
on the Bert Comett farm, 3 miles south of Olympia. Here the 
barren knobs formed almost entirely of Estill shale, over 100 feet 
thick, cover probably 10 acres. They are close to a railroad 
track formerly used to connect with the iron mines of this dis- 
trict, and are excellently located to be worked. There is further- 
more no overburden to be stripped oflf of the shale. 

Farther north on the land owned by the Rose Run Iron 
Mining Company there are similar knobs of the same shale. It 
also outcrops on the property of W. M. McLaughton, 1 mile north 
of Olympia station. Here it is slightly weathered, and the Ohio 
shale, also weathered in places, outcrops farther up the hill. 

The Estill shale is a very plastic, smooth, soft shale which 
works up nicely. Physical tests of it are given under Estill 
County in this chapter. 

Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 33) states that at Salt Lick on the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, a few miles west of Farmers, 
the Licking River Railway runs in a southeasterly direction. 
One mile east of Salt Lick and along the railway a section of 
the New Providence (Cuyahoga) shale 108 feet thick is ex- 
posed. It contains a few thin beds of sandstone, but they are 
not in sufficient quantity to cause much trouble. Underlying 
this shale there is 14i/> feet of black Ohio shale, and 15 feet of 
Bedford shale. 

At Caney's Switch there is 55^ feet of New Providence 
shale, but it is of very sandy nature, containing a number of 
sandstone beds. 

At Olympia Springs, a hill 1/2 mile east of the town shows 
47 feet of New Providence shale. It contains a little sandstone 
and some nodular ferruginous layers, but Foerste expresses the 
opinion that these could be easily thrown out. 

Salt Lick. One mile south of Salt Lick is a new brick plant, 
operated by the W. M. Harrick Brick and Tile Company, which 


is ran in connection with a saw mill. The plant is located be- 
tween Mud Lick and Salt Lick Creeks. 

A light colored flood-plain clay is used and the section ex- 
posed is: 

Surface clay (stripped) 2 ft. 

Flood-plain -clay 2 It. 

Both the common brick and drain tile which are manufac- 
tured here are molded in a stiflf-mud machine. One kiln had been 
built and a second was under construction. Burning is done 
with wood and takes 5-6 days. The tile are made in 3 to 8-inch 

Boyle County 

Clay-hearing Formations. Most of Boyle County is under- 
lain by limestones, the residual soil from which where thick 
enough, could be used in common-brick manufacture. In the 
southwestern part of the county there is an area underlain by 
shales of the New Providence formation, bordered on the north 
and east by the Ohio black shale. 

The Ohio shale in its fresh condition is hard, black and 
slaty, so that it is of no value to the clay worker. Where it 
has weathered to a residual clay it can be used for common brick. 

New Providence Shale, The New Providence shale is an ex- 
cellent material for structural clay products, and when fine 
grained can be used for red earthenware. 

It is well exposed in a hill known as Blue Knob, which lies 
i/> mile west of Junction City. This bare knob of shale, which 
is spoken of locally as the ** volcano," probably because of its 
conical shape, shows 85 feet of the New Providence shale, below 
which is the black Ohio shale. The bottom of the New Provi- 
dence shale contains concretions of phosphate of lime, but 
these are in such a thin zone that they would cause no trouble. 

The location of the deposit in Blue Knob is such that it 
could be easily worked, and the product shipped either over 
the Queen and Crescent or the Louisville and Nashville Rail- 
roads, both of which pass through Junction City. 


FlK. Z3. New Providence Bha.le bank, Blue Knob, near Junction Cltjr. 

The following tests (Lab. No. 2437) show the physieal char- 
acter of the shale in Blue Knob : 

Lime carbonate _ _ _ None 

Working qualities - - .Very good 

Plaatieity „ Good 

Water of plasticity - ~ ~ 25.6% 

ModuluB of rupture, lbs. per sg. tn 309 

Air shrinkage, linear 3.5% 

Color after flrlng Red 

Steel hard „ 950' C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

950° C 4.B 11.0 

1050' C 5.0 10.0 

1070° C 6.0 3 2 

1150° C 8.0 .4 

1190° C Overflred Slightly swelled 

The plasticity, shrinkage, modnlus of rupture and &riag 
qualities of the material are good. 

This clay is of a type that should maie good brick, or hol- 
low block. It might also work for common red earthenware. It 
is similar to the clay used at Firebrick, Lewis County, for pav- 
ing blocks. 


Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 157) gives the following analysis of 
this shale : 

Silica 62.44 

Alumina 17.87 

Ferric oxide • ~ 6.31 

Lime .*. 18 

Magnesia 1.18 

Potash 3 52 

Soda 77 

Titanic oxide 1.04 

Sulphur trioxide 19 

Ignition loss 4.85 

Moisture 1.35 


BuiiUTT County 

Clay-hearing Formations. The western half of Bullitt Coun- 
ty is underlain by Mississippian formations which are chiefly 
limestone, excepting a belt of New Providence shale which lies 
west of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. In the northern 
part of the county there are some excellent exposures of the 
Rosewood shale, notably in the vicinity of Brooks. Here the 
entire section of the Rosewood shale is exposed on the east slope 
of a ridge lying about i^^ mile west of Brooks, the different beds 
being seen along a road which has been cut over this knob. 

The shale is moderately hard, and contains many concre- 
tions of iron carbonate (siderite), as well as some gypsum. 
About 70 feet from the top there are also some limestone layers. 
Towards the top of the section the shale becomes sandy, where it 
grades into the Holtsclaw sandstone, which here shows two beds 
of sandstone with shale between them. 

While the shale occurs in great thickness it would probably 
be impracticable to quarry it without the concretions, and hence 
in testing a sample of it in the laboratory, the proper propor- 
tion of concretionary matter was included, but it was not aa 
finely ground as the shale. 


The tests which are given below represent the physical 
characters of the Rosewood shale, the sample (Lab. No. 2478) 
representing a mixture of the different beds which are exposed. 

Lime carbonate None 

Working quality ^ Fair 

Plasticity Moderate 

Water of plasticity 20.7% 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 78.6 

Slaking time 11 minutes 

Air shrinkage (linear) 2% 

Color after firing Red 

Soluble salts Present 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

950* C 1. 13.5 

1050° C 3. 9.9 

1160' C 4.5 8.4 

1190° C Nearly overfired 

This is not as good material as the New Providence shale. 
It fires to a red body and could be used for common brick. It 
is of doubtful value for hollow blocks, and also shows a tendency 
to develop a scum in drying. 

The material could, however, be easily worked and there 
is an abundance of it. 

A sample of slightly weathered shale (Lab. No. 2473) from 
the property of Dr. I/indsey Morrison at Lebanon Junction, 
was sent in to the (Jeological Survey oflfice and appears to re- 
semble that found in the New Providence formation. It has good 
plasticity' and a moderate air shrinkage of 4.5%. At 950° C. 
it fires to a good red color with 2% fire shrinkage, while at 
1050° C. it fires reddish brown with 7% fire shrinkage and only 
4.8% absorption. 

It is the type of material that is used for making bricks 
and hollow blocks. 

Campbell County 

Clay-hearing Formations, The county is underlain entirely 
by Ordovician limestones, which may supply residual clays 
suitable for common-brick manufacture. There is also a possi- 
bility of finding flood-plain clays of use for brick and tile along 


the Licking River. The Eden shales in the extreme northern 
part of the county might also serve for brick making. 

The only clay working plant in the county is that of the 
Alhambra Tile Company, whose product is plain, embossed and 
dull finished enamel tile, terra vitrea and faience tiles. These are 
made of a mixture of clays obtained mostly from Kentucky and 
other states. The product bears an excellent reputation and is 
widely used for decorative work. The prominent pieces of work 
m which the product from this factory is used include : Y. M. C. 
A., Hotel and Clinic Building, Cleveland, 0. ; LeBland Machine 
Tool Co., Cincinnati, 0. ; Citizens Bank and Trust Co., Newport, 

Carroll County 

Carroll County is completely underlain by limestone forma- 
tions which may supply residual clays. There is a narrow strip 
of flood-plain material along the Ohio River, which has been used 
for making common brick by the CarroUton Brick Company at 

Clark County 

Clay-bearing Formations, This county lies partly in the 
Bluegrass region and partly in the belt of knob hills. In the 
former part residual clays from Ordovician limestones might 
serve to supply local brick plants. In the latter plastic ma- 
terials could be obtained from the Niagara shales (Estill and 
Lulbegrud) and from residual clays from the Ohio shale. 

Easton (Ref. 10) has noted several localities in Clark Coun- 
ty as follows : 

1. Along the Indian Fields — Clay City road, 2 miles from 
Indian Fields are deposits of weathered Niagaran shale. The 
material is very plastic and fires to a dark red color. It has 
138 pounds per square inch tensile strength, and an air shrink- 
age of 7%. Its vitrifying point is low, and it is nearly viscous 
at cone 6. 

2. On the R. Kidd place, 3 miles north of Indian Fields, are 
more outcrops of Niagaran shale. The properties of this ma- 
terial are: 


Plasticity Pair 

Air shrinkage (linear) 6% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in 88.3 

Fire shrinkage 4% 

Color alter firing Pale yellow 

Cone ol vitrification 9 

The color of this material when fired may be due to a high 
content of lime. 

3. Several exposures around Kiddville are noted but not 
specially described. 

4. One mile west of Indian Fields, the properties given 

Plasticity High 

Air shrinkage (linear) 7% 

Fire shrinkage .'. 7% 

Color after firing Dark red 

Cone of vitrification .03 

Cone of viscosity — 5 

A chemical analysis which is given shows: 

Silica 58.48 

Alumina 19.33 

Ferric oxide 6.08 

Ferrous oxide 1.01 

Lime 82 

Magnesia 2.27 

Potash 4.58 

Soda 89 

THanic oxide 45 

Ignition loss 5.41 

Moisture 1.02 

5. One mile west of Indian Fields. This is in the Estill 
shale division of the Niagaran. It fired dark brown and was 
vitrified at cone 6. 

6. Four miles south of Indian Fields on the Morgan Eu- 
bank place. Here there is recorded a deposit of greenish Estill 
shale, 21V^ feet thick, which is said to underlie over 100 acres. 
The physical properties given are: 


Plasticity Good 

Air shrinkage (linear) 5% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. In 105 

Fire shrinkage 10% 

Color alter firing - Dark red 

Gone of vitrification .02 

Cone of viscosity - 6 

7. Two and one-half miles east of Indian Fields, on Or- 
lando Hensley place. This is residual clay from the Ohio shale. 
The physical properties recorded are: 

Plasticity Good 

Air shrinkage 6% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in W 

Fire shrinkage 7% 

Color after firing Dark red 

Cone of vitrification 7 

A chemical analysis which is given of this material is in- 
teresting on account of the remarkably high percentage of ferric 
oxide which it contains. The analysis shows : 

Silica 44.40 

Alumina 11.35 

Ferric oxide 24.69 

Lime 26 

Magnesia 38 

Potash 1.99 

Soda 26 

Titanic oxide 75 

Sulphur trioxlde 56 

<Phosporus Pentoxide 13 

Ignition 12.28 

Moisture 3.04 

[ 100.04 

Estill County 

Clay-hearing Formations. Estill County lies in the belt 
of the "Knobs/' and the rock formations consist of irregular 
patches of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian. The first 
and last might supply good shales. The second would carry 
only the black Ohio shale, which as already noted is of no value 
in its unweathered form. 


There is no clay-working industry in the county at present, 
although common brick were formerly made by J. S. Stephens at 

Irvine, Along White Oak Creek on the property of Alfred 
Gum, 1 mile west of Irvine, there are excellent exposures of 
Niagaran shales, in fact the entire Niagaran series is to be seen 
in many of the hills in this vicinity, extending from the Rich- 
mond at the bottom to the overlying Devonian rocks at the top. 

One section measured on Mr. Gum's land showed: 

Onondaga limestone 15 It. 

EstlU shale 50 ft. 

Waco limestone 2 ft. 

Lulbegrud shale 15 ft. 

The Onondaga limestone rests directly on the Niagaran 
shales. It is magnesian, sandy, and characterized by cherty 
lenses lying parallel with the bedding. 

The Estill shale may at times be exposed for a considerable 
distance with little overburden. The 2-foot bed of fossiliferous 
Waco limestone separates the Estill shale from the Lulbegrud 
shale, but the two shales look much alike, although the former 
is more gypsiferous, and the hillside along its outcrop is strewn 
with numerous gypsum crystals. Where the Onondaga lime- 
stone outcrops above the Estill shale and weathers, the surface 
of the shale may be covered with chert fragments derived from 
the limestone. 

Both shales weather to a smooth, light gray clay, but even 
in their unweathered condition they are smooth ani fairly soft. 

Two samples of shales were tested from the property of 
Mr. Gum. 

The one (Lab. No. 2443), represents the Lulbegrud shale. 
It represents a very smooth, slightly calcareous, soft shale. The 
other properties are: 

Plasticity Very good 

Water of plasticity 30.7% 

Slaking time 33 minutes 

^Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 343 

Air shrinkage (linear) 6% 

Steel hard 1050* C. 

Color after firing ^ Red 


Fire tests. 

Temp. Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

950'* C 4.5 12.4 

1O50' C 5.0 8.6 

lOTO** C 6.0 .17 

1150" C 6.5 .4 

lldO** C Overfired 

This is very nice clay which is very similar to the Estill 
shale with which it is closely associated, and which should be 
of value in manufacture of brick, hollow blocks and drain tile. 
The smooth portions of it could be used also for common red 

The sample of Estill (Lab. No. 2442) from the same prop- 
erty is present in large quantity. It contains rather numerous 
scattered gypsum grains. Its properties are : 

Lime carbonate Present 

Working quality Excellent 

Plaffticity High 

Water of plasticity 32.7% 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per sq. in 474 

Air shrinkage (linear) 7% 

Color after firing Red 

Steel hard 950* C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

3. 9. 

a. 1.3 











9. .7 

9.5 .3 


This is an excellent clay, and should compete with the New 
Providence shale, although it is somewhat less desirable on ac- 
count of its higher shrinkage. The plasticity and transverse 
strength are good. It should be of use in the manufacture of 
brick, tile, hollow blocks and probably red earthenware as it 
is very smooth. 

A 6-foot bed of Estill shale can be seen in the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad cut in the western part of the town of Irvine, 
and while the deposit is not of workable character, because of 


its thickness and overburden, it serves to show the nature of 
the material. The section is : 

Ohk) shale 3 ft. 

Onondaga or Columbus llmestonQ 10 ft. 

(Estill shale 6 ft. 

The Ohio shale also outcrops in the hill west of the cut 
where it shows a thickness of at least 50 feet. As seen there it 
is the usual black, fissile shale. The residual clay from it where 
formed is brown and red, and not very smooth. It could be 
used for bricks. 

The Estill shale weathers to a light gray, very plastic, smooth 
clay, but contains considerable gypsum. 

Foerste (Sef. 11, p. 46) calls attention to the fact that at 
the eastern end of the town of Irvine there is a hill known as 
Minerva Mountain which shows a thick section ranging from 
Mississippian limestone on top to the Ohio shale at the bottom. 
The New Providence (Cuyahoga) shale which is included in 
this section shows about 130 feet of shales that might be suitable 
for making clay products, provided they can be found at a point 
where the overburden is not too heavy. 

Panola. The following two analyses of Niagara shale are 
given by Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 148) and are of interest in showing 
how these shales may apparently vary. No. I is from the rail- 
road cut east of Panola station. No. II is from a point 2 miles 
southwest of Panola, and is quite plastic. It fires to a cream 
color. This is probably due to an excessive amount of lime : 



Ferric oxide 





Titanic oxide 
























98.72 100.000 


Fayette County 

Only residual clays derived from Ordovician limestones are 
to be found in this county. They may vary somewhat in their 
character, and if not properly chosen are likely to cause trouble 
from fragments of limestone. 

They have been used for some years around Lexington for 
the manufacture of common brick, but at present the only plant 
in operation is that of the Lexington Brick Company. This is 
located east of town on the southside of the Liberty pike. The 
material being used is a residual clay that is said to run 4 feet 
deep, and as the bed rock is somewhat slabby in character, 
pieces of it are likely to get into the clay. 

The clay after digging is put through a rolls, pugmill, and 
soft-mud brick machine. The bricks are dried on pallets and 
fired in Dutch kilns. The clay fires to a good red color. 

Grant County 

This county is underlain by Ordovician limestones, which 
may yield residual clay, but there are no clay-working plants 
in the county. 

Easton (Ref. 10, p. 803) has referred to a yellow calcareous 

shale which occurs in the first railroad cut north of Mason. He 

gives no data regarding its thickness, but notes that it has the 

following physical properties. 

Plasticity Good 

Air shrinkage 8% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in 74 

Fire shrinkage 5% 

Oone of vitrification .01 

Cone of viscosity 6 

The following analysis of it is also given by him : 

Silica 52.50 

Alumina 16.87 

Ferric oxide 5.28 

Ferrous oxide 1.01 

Lime „ 3.04 

Magnesia 2.06 

Potash 5.67 

Soda 1.44 

Titanic oxide 60 

Phosphorus pentoxide 33 

Water and carbon dioxide 9.01 

Moisture 2.00 



Jefferson County 

This county is in some respects the most important one 
in Kentucky so far as the clay-working industry is concerned, 
partly because it contains extensive deposits of excellent clays, 
and partly because of the diversity of character of the products 
manufactured here, these including common and face brick, 
hollow blocks, flue linings, sewer pipe, drain tile, red earthen- 
ware, stoneware, imitation whiteware, and fire brick. Most of 
the plants are located close to Louisville. While some of them 
are supported entirely by raw materials obtained in JeflEerson 
County, others obtain their clays in part from the fire-clay dis- 
trict of eastern Kentucky, and in part from the fire-clay district 
of Indiana. 

Clay-Bearing Formations 
These include the following: 

1. Alluvial clays bordering the Ohio River. None of these 
are worked, and while their presence has not been investigated, 
it is probably safe to say that they occur. 

2. Rosewood shale of Waverly or Lower Mississippian age. 
Butts (Ref. 2, p. 50) describes this as a bluish gray, unevenly 
fissile and siliceous shale, whose composition is approximately, 
silica 68%, alumina 14%, calcium carbonate 51/^ %, ferric oxide 
4%, potash 3%. It may contain some thin limestone lenses and 
also ferruginous nodules. It occurs capping the ridges east of 
Coral Ridge, on top of the hills south of Kosmosdale and west 
of Brooks. It can be used for structural clay products, but is 
not as good as the New Providence shale, to be next mentioned. 

3. New Providence Shale, Butts (Ref. 2, p. 137) states 
that in Jefferson County this outcrops on the sides of knobs in 
the vicinity of Iroquois and Jacobs Parks, on the lower sides 
of the Knobs farther southward and in the level spaces between. 
Its top passes beneath the overlying strata at the north bases 
of Mitchell and Jefferson Hills, and at the base of the hill at 
Pleasure Ridge. It also outcrops in the upper part of the val- 
ley of Crane Run and of the run just east of Johnstown. 

It extends about half way up the side of South Park Hills 
and Norton Hills. It is also found on the side of the hill east of 


Hunters Trace where the shale was formerly dug for brick mak- 
ing. Jt is quarried for brick on both sides of the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad at Coral Ridge. 

On Button Mold Knob one mile south of the county line 
from Norton Hills there are excellent exposures, but here the 
shale has a number of thin limestone beds. 

Six miles southwest of Louisville, along the Illinois Central 
Railway there is a bank of New Providence shale fully 75 feet 
high. There was formerly a brick works at this locality, but 
the bank has been more recently worked by the National Process 
Company for making potash from the shale. The plant is now 

Butts states that the total thickness of the New Providence 
shale in JeflEerson County is 150 to 160 feet. It is a shale of ex- 
cellent plasticity, and well adapted to the manufacture of clay 

It may contain concretions of iron carbonate, but these are 
not always abundant, nor do they appear to be uniformly dis- 
tributed through the shale. Gypsum may also be present in small 

The two following analyses given by Butts represent: I, 
the lower part (green shale), and II, the still lower part (blue 
shale) from Coral Ridge, plant of Coral Ridge Clay Products 
Company : 



Ferric oxide 





Phosphorus pentoxlde 

Sulphur trioxide 

Titanic oxide 





























101.77 100.95 


Pig. 24. Kiln sheds, P. BB,nnan Brick Comiianr, IxiulBvIlle. 

4. Jeffersonville Limestone Clay. The residual clay from 
tlie Jeffersonville limestone underlies a considerable area and 
is worked for the manufacture of brick and drain tile. It is a 
plastic, red-burning clay that gives an excellent product. 

Clay Wobkino Industry 

P. Bannon Pipe Company. This firm has a plant in Louis- 
ville, which produces common brick, hollow block, and some fire 
brick. The raw material used includes shale quarried at the 
company's pit at Coral Ridge and fire clay obtained from Sol- 
dier, Carter County. 

The shale pit lies on the west side of the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad at Coral Ridge. In the highest part of the 
working face there is 25 feet of clay derived from the weathering 
of the shale, and about 25 feet of shale under it. Scattered 
through the deposit are concretions of carbonate of iron, which 
are sometimes coated with gypsum as well as containing it in 
the cracks. The shale is quarried with an excavating machine 
shown in Fig. 25. It is then taken by rail to the plant at 
Louisville. There it is ground in dry pans, and tempered in 
wet pans. The bricks and hollow blocks are all molded in a 
stiff-mud machine. Drying is done in tunnels heated by live 


** BP-'- L — vk 

Fig. ZS. Machine for ext^avatlnK shale, pit of P. Bannan Pipe Compaii]'. 
Coral Rldee. 

steam. The plant is equipped with 15 circular down-draft kilns, 
aod firing takes 7 days for hollow blocks and 15 days for the 
fire brick. The completion is judged by trial pieces. 

Coral Ridge Clay Products Company. This company's 
plant is located 1/4 mile south of Coral Ridge station on the 
Louisville and Nashville Hallway, the product being hollow block, 
common brick and face brick. 

The material employed is the New Providence shale which 
is quarried in the hill just behind the works, the quarry hav- 
ing a working face of about 50 feet in height. The section 
showed : 

Residual clay 6 Tt. 

Green shale witb scattered Iron carbonate concre- 
tions, and crusts and fllms of gfpsum 36 It. 

Blue rather hard shale, with no concretions 9 ft. 

The green shale and the residual clay are the materials 
chiefly used, as the lower shale is found rather hard to excavate 
with the steam shovel. The upper shale shows a tendency to 


develop drier scum, while the lower shale which is free from 
giypsum and eoneretions does not scum, but is less plastic. 

The following tests indicate the character of the green 
Bhale (Lab. No. 2417) forming the upper three-fourths of the 
working face : 


Average transverse strength, 

lbs. per sq. In 


Soluble salts 

p , 

Fire tests. 


950= C 

1070' C 

1150° C 

1170° C 

Fire Sbrinkage 



This is an excellent shale which is adapted to making brick, 
hollow blocks, drain tile and common red earthenware. 


A sample of the lower shale (Lab. No. 2418), was also tested 

with the results given below: 
Lime carbonate .. 


Water of plaeticlty . 


...Very good 


Slaiklns time, minutes . 
Air shrlnlcage .. 

Average tran^vei-se Btrength, lbs. per bq. In. .. 

Coior after firing 

Steefl hard 

Fire tests. 


Fire Shrinkage 




950° C 



1050* C 



1070'' C. 



IISO" c 



IIW c 

Overt red 

This shale fires to a red color, but not quite as bright as 
the upper shale. It also stands a litHe more heat. It should, 
however, make good brick, hollow bloi^ks and tile. 


Pig. Zl. Plant of Coral RldRe Clay Products Company, Coral Ridse. 

The shale used at the plant is ground in dry pans, screened 
and tempered in pug-mill. Molding is done in a stiS-mud ma- 


chine, and drying in tunnel driers. The plant has 5 circular 
and 5 rectangular down-draft kilns, all equipped with connec- 
tions for thermo-electric pyrometer. Water smoking is com- 
pleted at 350°F. and firing at 1650°F. If flashed brick are to 
be made, this is done by adding oil to the flres. 

Southern Brick and TUe Company. This company has two 
plants located along the Southern Railway at Whitners station 
or Buechel postoffice. At one plant common brick are manu- 
factured, and at the other one, drain tile. 

The clay used is in both cases residual material from the 

Brick Company. Whitner Station. 

Jeftersonville limestone formation, although each plant is sup- 
plied from a different pit. This residual clay is said to run 10 
feet deep, and that portion of it exposed in the pit of the brick 
plant shows : 

Yellow clay 4 ft. 

Red clay „ 2 ft. 

The brick clay (Lab. No. 2419) is somewhat open and silice- 
ous, but has good plasticity. It fires to a good red body at 950°C. 
with 16,3^ absorption. Butts in his report on Jefferson Coun- 
ty (Ref , 2, p. 224) gives the following analysis of the clay : 




Ferric oxide 







1 68 

The high percentage of silk-a is consistent ivith the siliceous 
character of the clay. The clay also contains scattered chert 
fragments which are liable to f^et into the briek. 

At the brick works the clay is loaded onto cars in the pit 
and haiiletl up an incline to the works where it is tempered in 

Southern Brick 

a pugmill and molded iu a soft-mud machine. Drying is done 

in tunnels, and burning in Dutch kilns. There are five of these, 

and the fuel used is producer gas. The firing takes 6-7 days. 

The drain tile are fired in a circular dowu-draft kiln. 


Progress Brick Company. This works is situated on the 
Poplar Level road south of Louisville and about 1/4 mile north 
of Camp Taylor. The product is common and front brick. 

Tie- M. Pit ot Progreaa Brick Company, Loulavllle. 

The clay is residual material derived from the Jefferson- 
ville limestone formation, and the pit which is very shallow lies 
close to the works. A section in the excavation is as follows : 

Soil — .„ 1% ft. 

Yellow clay _ - 4 ft. 

Red clay „ „ 6-6 It 

In digging the clay the chert fragments are rejected when- 
ever possible, and the piles of them in the pit indicate that they 
are rather abundant especially in the lower part of the clay 

After hauling the clay to the works it is stored in the dry 
shed. Subsequently when ready for use it is crushed, screened, 
and molded in a dry-press machine. Firing is done in Dutch 
kilns and takes about 9 days. The clay makes an excellent red 

East End Brick Company. This plant has also made brick 
from the Jeffersonville limestone residual clay, but is no longer 
in operation. 


P. Bannon Pipe Company. The company has a second works 
at 836 South 13th street and there manufactures sewer pipe, 
flue linings and chimney tops. The clays used are shale obtained 
from Coral Ridge, Jeflferson County, fire clay from Soldier, Car- 
ter County, and No. 2 fire clay from Duff, Indiana. The com- 
pany also owns clay property near Shorts Station, Daviess Coun- 
ty, Kentucky, but is not at present getting any material from 

The materials are all ground in dry pans, and tempered 
in wet pans. 

Sewerpipe and flue linings are molded in a pipe press, but 
the chimney tops are molded by hand. Drying is done on floors, 
and firing in circular down-draft kilns, of which the plant has 
twelve, all connected with a thermo-electric pyrometer. The 
firing takes' 120 hours, and salt glazing is done at 1950°F. The 
total shrinkage of the sewer pipe mixture is 14.6%. The clay 
shows a tendency to scum at times, which is probably due to 
the Coral Bidge shale. 

Louisville Pottery Company. This company's plant is lo- 
cated at Floyd and Broom streets, the product consisting of 
flower pots, stoneware and some imitation whiteware, the last 
having a stoneware body covered with an opaque white glaze. 

The flower pots are made from the New Providence shale 
obtained from Bannon 's pit at Coral Ridge, while the stone- 
ware is manufactured from a No. 2 fire clay mined at Hunting- 
burg, Indiana. Sagger clay is obtained from the Purchase region. 

The flower pots are molded in a machine for this purpose. 

The stoneware clay is moistened, crushed and stored for 
some time before using. It is then disintegrated in a dry pan, 
mixed in a blunger, and forced from this through a 40-mesh 
screen into the filter press where the excess of water is squeezed 
out. The material is then ready for molding. 

The pottery is equipped with 5 circular down-draft kilns, 
and firing of stoneware requires 72 hours. The earthenware 
flower pots are fired at 1800°F. and the stoneware at 2300°F., 
the firing being checked with a pyrometer. Albany and Michi- 
gan slip clays are used for glazing the stoneware. 

The market for the product is in the central states. 


Lormmlle Firebrick Works. The Louisville Firebrick 
Works has a plant loeated at Highland Park, south of Louis- 
ville, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. In addition it 
also has a works at Grahn, Carter County, 

At the former plant the product consists of standard fire 
brick of different grades, locomotive blocks, rotary kiln brick, 
stove backs, etc. 

The fire clays used are obtained in part from the company's 
mines at Grahn, and in part from Huntington, Ind. The Grahn 

LoulaiiUe Fire Brlok Works, Hlshland 

olays are in part flint clays, while the Indiana material is a No. 
2 fire clay. 

The elays are crushed in dry pans and tempered in wet 
pans. Standard shapes are made in a modified type of dry-press 
machine. Large pieces and special shapes are molded by hand. 
The drying is all done on floors which are heated by steam pipes 
laid beneath them, and by hot air forced into the drying rooms 
throufch large pipes. 

Firing is done in circular down-draft kilns of which there 
are 16, and requires 6 days to reach high fire. No pyrometer is 
used, but cone 9 is said to be turned over. 


F\g. 32. Kill 

I'arks. HlRliland I 

The daily capacity of the plant figured in terms of 9-inch 
brick is 50,000. 

The XXX and the Bung branils represent the best grade 
of brick produced by the works. The No. 1 and Louisville 
brands are the nest best, the former being a hand-made re- 
pressed brick, and the latter a machine-made one. 

The following analyses and other tests have been supplied 
by the company. 

XXX LouisTllle No. I 

Hand Made Machine Made Hand Made 























Ignition loss 




Cone of fusion 





The compression in the standard load test at 1345° C. was 
8.51%. The permanent contraction in the reheating test at 
1400° C. was .33%. The penetration in standard slag test was 
.93-.97 square inches. The average total of cold crushing 
strength was 25,250 pounds. In the spalling test the brick lost 
35% on the fifth dip when tested as received. When they were 
reheated before spalling they lost about 50% on the sixth dip. 

In connection with the latter test it may be explained that 
the brick is weighed and then heated to 1300-1350° for one hour. 
It is then placed on end in a tank of cold running water for 3 
minutes. This is followed by 5 minutes air drying, after which 
it is replaced in the furnace. The procedure is repeated until 
pieces of the brick begin to spall off. In the reheating test the 
brick is first heated to 1350° C. after which it is cooled. It is 
then put through the test as outlined above. 

Jessamine County 

This county is entirely underlain by residual clay derived 
from Ordovician limestones. This type of clay is being used at 
Nicholasville bv Schneider and Sons for brick manufacture. The 
yard was formerly located on the south side of town, but the 
clay gave out and it was moved to the north side of the village 
along the road to Lexington. The clay is residual, derived prob- 
ably from the Jessamine limestone, and the product is common 
brick. The plant is equipped with a soft-mud machine, pallet 
racks for drying, and Dutch kilns. 

Kenton County 

In this county two types of clay occur, viz., flood-plain clays, 
and residual clays. There is also a possibility of finding de- 
posits of Eden shale similar to those which are worked across 
the Ohio River at Cincinnati, for making common brick. 

There are also several clay-workdng plants in operation 
making brick and tile, as well as clay pits to supply foundries. 

Floor and Wall Tile. The Cambridge Tile Manufacturing 
Company has two plants in Covington. These are engaged in 
the production of Ceramics or small tile of different colors for 
floors, also bright and matte glazed wall tile, with either flat or 
embossed surface, and of plain white or different colors. In ad- 


dition the firm makes a specialty of various styles of figures and 
letters for signs and bulletin boards. An excellent example of 
the latter is a large train service, bulletin board in the Union 
Station at Cincinnati. 

The clays which are used come mostly from other states, 
with the exception of sagger clays which are obtained from the 
Purchase region of Western Kentucky. 

The following are examples of work done by the Cambridge 
Tile Manufacturing Company : 

Hotel Gibson and Metropole Hotel, Woodward High School, 
Cincinnati, 0. Ceramic Mosaics for the floors, white glazed wall 
tile and trim for bathrooms, etc. 

Rock Island Railroad Depot, Bock Island, 111. Ceramic 
Mosaics for the floors. 

The Arcade, Dayton, 0. Ceramic Mosaics for the floors. 

Central Savings Bank and Trust Company, Covington, Ky. 
Floors of Ceramic moeaics and wainscoting of white wall tile 
and trim. 

Brick Works. The Busse Brick Company has a works lo- 
cated along the Louisville and Nashville Railroad at the southern 
edge of Covington. The product is common brick. 

The clay, which is a flood-plain deposit, is from 10 to 15 feet 
thick. It contains scattered pebbles of quartz and limestone, 
and fires to a red color. 

The plant is equipped with a pug-mill for tempering, and 
soft-mud machine for molding. Tunnel dryers are used, and 
the brick are run through these in 24 hours, although some trou- 
ble is experienced with cracking. 

The firing which is done in rectangular up-draf t kilns takes 
from 12-14 days, and the bricks settle 8-10 inches in 38 courses. 

Broering and Meier have a common brick plant located on 
Delmar street at the Licking River. The clay is a flood-plain 
deposit in which two openings have been made at different levels. 
That obtained from the lower pit is darker and more tender, 
although in character it is somewhat open and soft. That from 
the upper pit, which lies about 15 feet higher than the preced- 
ing, is yellow, less tender and stronger. Both clays contain 
some limestone pebbles and also a few of quartz. 


The clay is hauled up an incline from the pits, and dis- 
charged into a feeder which delivers it to the rolls. It is then 
passed on to a pug-mill and molded in a soft-mud machine. The 
bricks are dried on pallets and left there from 7 to 10 days, while 
the firing which consumes from 9 to 12 days is carried out in 
Dutch kilns. The bricks settle 6 to 8 inches in 38 courses. 

The clay burns to a good red brick. It is disposed of chiefly 
on the markets of Covington and Cincinnati. 

In former years a brick yard was also in operation at the 
head of Russell street. Gardner (Ref. 13, p. 207) describes the 
clay as being of yellow color, mottled with light bluish gray. 
He also gives the following analysis of the material: 

Snica 68 36 

Alumina and ferric oxide 22.26 

Lime 1.00 

Magnesia 1.18 

Potash 2.13 

Soda 90 

Sulphur trioxide 25 

Ignition 3.65 


Clay Pits, S. J. Moore of 905 Lewis street, Covington, has 
opened a pit from which he obtains molding sand and **fire 
clay.'' The latter material is used by foundries and malleable 
iron works. 

It is found near the top of the hills in the Park on Light 
Hills, and is possibly a residual clay from the Eden shales. The 
section in the pit shows: 

Sandy clay 4-6 ft. 

"Fire clay" 8 ft. 

The so-called fire clay is not really such, for it fires to a 
red steel -hard body even at 950° C. However, this does not in- 
terfere with its being of service in foundries and iron works, 
where clays are used for patching and plugging in places where 
they are not exposed to a very high temperature. 

E. M. Light, of Light Hills, near Covington, claims to have 
a deposit of terra cotta clay, but so far as known none of it has 
been shipped. 


i Madison County 

Clay Formations. The western two-thirds of Madison Coun- 
ty is underlain by Ordovieian limestones, which may supply 
residual clays suitable for brick manufacture. In this same 
part of the county it may be possible to find local flood-plain de- 
posits along some of the streams, which could be used to support 
a small brick plant. 

In the eastern third of the county the clays are of much 
greater value. 

Here we find scattered deposits of the Irvine formation 
which is of Tertiary age (Chap. 1), and these clays are adapted 
to the manufacture of stoneware. They are very plastic dense- 
burning clays, which at present are being utilized at Waco 
and Bybee to make stoneware, blue art pottery, brick and tile. 
They have also been used in the past for roofing tile. 

Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 160) says: ** Probably no class of clays 
in the central part of Kentucky has aroused a wider interest for 
d longer time than those from the Irvine formation in various 
parts of Madison County. From no area of similar size have we 
as many analyses. This is due to the fact that at an early date 
a fairly extensive production of common stoneware was founded 
upon the use of this clay, and that this stoneware industry is 
still in existence." 

These deposits are never deep and so far as known never 
of great extent, but they appear to be scattered over a rather 
extensive territory, and it would seem that in the aggregate they 
might furnish considerable clay. 

In this same part of the country there are also found de- 
posits of Niagara shale and New Providence shale, although they 
are not as favorably located for working as at other points. 

Pottery Clays, There are two potteries in operation in Madi- 
son County, one at Waco and the other at Bybee. 

Waco Pottery Company. This is operated by Messrs. 
Qrimstead and Stone. The product consists of stoneware crocks, 
jugs and bowls. In addition they make a blue glazed art ware, 
for candlesticks, vases, flower bowls, etc. A small quantity of 
brick and drain tile is also produced, the pottery branch being 
looked after by Mr. Stone and the brick and tile by Mr. Qrim- 


Fig. J3. Waco Pottery, Waco. 

The pottery is located on the pike about 1/2 mile east o£ 
Waco, and the clay pit is about 1/4 mile south of the pottery. 

The pit is a shallow excavation in the woods, the section 
showing a yellowish sand above which grades down into a tough 
smooth brownish clay. The tough clay is said to run 3 to 4 feet 
thick, and below it there is gravel. The gravel rests on Ohio 
black shale. 

The following tests give the physical properties of this ma- 
terial (Lab. No. 2440) : 

Working qualfties „ _ .Very good 

Plaatlcitr Very good 

Water c( plasticity _ - 26 3 

Modulus of rupture, lbs. per m. in ., _ _ 678 

Air ahrlnkage (linear) „ 6% 

Color after Bring _ „ .Reddlab buff 

Steel hard 950' C. 

950' C. 
1050» C. 
1090° C. 
1130' C. 
1X90' C. 
1S60' C. 




This is an excellent dense-burning clay of stoneware type. 
It has a high modulus of rupture, in fact the highest of any of 
the series tested. It could probably be used also for roofing tile 
and other wares in which a vitrified body is required. 

Half way between the clay pit and the pottery the black 
Ohio shale outcrops, but little below the level of the clay pit. 
Under the Ohio shale is a soft gray stratified clay shale about 
8 feet thick, with sandstone at the bottom. It is not known 
whether this is the base of the shale, or whether it extends below 
the sandstone, in which case the latter represents a sandy layer 
in the shale that would have to be removed. This same shale is 
struck in greater thickness in well drillings to the eastward. In 
its appearance and properties the shale closely resembles the 
Niagara. The properties of this shale (Lab. No. 2439) are given 
below : 

Lime carbonate A little 

Working qualities Very smooth 

Plasticity Very good 

Slaking time, mimuAea 22 

Air shrinkage (linear) 6% 

Color after firing Red 

Steel hard 960* C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

aSO'' C 5.0 3.4 

1050** C 8.0 2.4 

1160* C 11.0 .4 

1190' C Overflred 

This clay fires to a hard body even at 950° C. It might be 
mixed with the stoneware clay dug nearby and could also be 
used in brick and tile. Possibly also for common red earthen- 
ware. The slope of the land is such that enough could be dug to 
supply the pottery without having to remove much overbur- 

The stoneware at the Waco pottery is made from a mix- 
ture of the Irvine clay with one-third sand. The mixture is 
tempered in a pug-mill and thrown on a kick wheel. It is fired 
to cone 5 in a small circular down-draft kiln, the firing requiring 
60 hours. The stoneware is glazed with a mixture of Albany 


and Michigan slip clays, which is darkened by adding manganese 
oxide to it. The blue ware which is quite attractive is produced 
by covering the stoneware with a blue glaze. 

For brick and tile the Irvine clay alone is used. It is tem- 
pered in a soakpit and molded in a stiff-mud machine operated 
by horse power. The ware is fired at cone 2. 

The product is sold in the surrounding country. 

A small sample from a new deposit of pottery clay was sent 
in to the Survey by Mr. Stone, of Waco. 

This sample was too small to do anything with except burn 
a couple of samples. From these could be determined the fact 
that the material is a plastic clay which fires to a good buff 
color. It has 10.8^ absorption at 1190° C, and S.^fc absorp- 
tion at 1230^0. The former temperature corresponds to cone 3 
and the latter to cone 5. Mention is made of this as the potters 
at Bybee use cones in their kilns. The material could probably 
be used in their stoneware mixture, but it is not as dense burning 
as the clay which they were using for making their stoneware 
in the summer of 1921. 

Bybee Pottery Company. This plant, which is located at 
Bybee, produces only hand made ** Bybee'' blue art pottery, 
which is sold locally and throughout the United States and Can- 
ada. It was the first of the two to make the blue glazed stone- 
ware. The stoneware is said to be fired at cone 6. 

The clay for this pottery is obtained from a pit owned in fee 
by the Bybee Potterj^ Company on what was known formerly 
as the Mrs. C. S. Rupard farm, which lies on the north side of the 
road between Waco and Bybee. It is a gray plastic clay, belong- 
ing to the Irvine formation, and having a thickness of 3 feet with 
3y2 feet of sandy clay overburden. It is underlain by quick- 
sand and care has to be taken not to uncover it in digging the 
clay as it is waterbearing. The clay is hauled 1 1/2 miles to the 
Bybee Pottery at Bybee. In its physical properties it is similar 
to the Waco Pottery's clay, but apparently takes a little more 
heat in firing 

A sample of the Bybee Pottery Co., (Rupard) pottery clay, 
from near Waco, collected by T. B. McCoun, Lexington, Ken- 


Fig. 3*. The Old Pottery at Bybee. 

tueky, was sent in to the Geological Survey for testing. The 
reKuha were as follows : 

Plasticity, pood. 

Water of plasticity 30%. 

Lineal- air shrinkage 7%. 

Modulu.s of nipture of the clay alone, 179 pounds per square 
inch, which is fair. 

Fires to a ereara white color at 1150° C. 

Steel hard at 1170°; and nearly so at 1150°C. 

Absorption at 1150° is 16%, at 1190° it is 11.8%, and at 
1230°C. it is 7.%. 

It is not a very dense burning clay at the temperatures giv- 
en. The material could be used probably in the manufacture of 
chemical stoneware, terra cotta, electric insulators, face brick 
and saggers. 

Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 162) notes several other localities at 
which the Irvine clay has been found. All of the^c known de- 
posits have now been worked out and abandoned. 

One of these is on the G. S. McKinney property, i/j mile 
south and ^/i mile east from Waco, Another one on the Adams 
farm near Waco, was used at one time at Searcy to make roof- 
ing tiles. 


Fig. 35. Making- pottery by hand at Bybee. 

At Moberiy there is another deposit which is doubtfully 
referred to the Irvine formation. Foerste gives the following 
analysis of this : 

The two following analyses were supplied by Dr. A, M. 
Peter, chief chemist. 

Silica „.. 

.... 74.36 


Ferric olide — 

.. -- 6.78 

PoUah _ 



_ _. .49 

Tttanfc oxide 

. l.!6 


This clay was being used for brick and tile by the Moberiy 
Brick Company in 1904. The plant is not running now. 

The two following analyses were supplied by Dr. A. M, 
Peter, Chief Chemist. 

Laboratory No. G-4 074.— Clay, labeled "Prom Messrs. Qrlmstead 
& Stone, Waco Pottery Co.. Waco, Madison Co., Ky." Received April 
1. 1922, from Dr, W. R. Jillaon, State Geologist, FYanktort The sample 
was about a pound lump ol lisbt smoke-gray or buR colored clay. 



Per Cent 

Moisture 3.72 

Volatile matter 5.76 

Silica 59.98 

Ferric oxide 7.98 

Alumina 16.46 

Titanic oride 0.80 

Calcium oxide 1.12 

iMa^gnesium oxide 1.04 

Sodium oxide 0.62 

Potaasium oxide 3.43 

Total 100.91 

Laboratory No. G-3885. — Clay received January 7, 1920, through J. 
E. Barton, Commissioner of Geology and Forestry, from J. W. Cook, 
Richmond, Madison County, Ky. The sample was about a pound lump 
of yellow or buff colored clay. 


Per Cent 

Moisture 2.39 

Ignition (combined water, etc.) 5.81 

Silica 69.42 

Alumina ^ 13;20 

Ferric oxide 3.44 

Ti'tanliun dioxide 1.08 

Calcium oxide 1.29 

iMagnesium oxide 0.90 

Sodium oxide 32 

Potassium oxide 2.50 

Total 100.35 

Another analysis of an Irvine clay from Waco, is also given 
by Foerste. It runs: 

Snica 62.58 

Alumina 21.98 

Ferric oxide 4.78 

Lime tr. 

Magnesia 1.276 

Potash 2.607 

Soda 0.500 

iM'anganous oxide tr. 

Sulphur trioxide 234 

Ignition 6.14 



Shales, New Providence (Linietta) shale is said to out- 
crop 1.5 miles northeast of Berea on the Kingston Pike. It is 
supposed to represent the lower 40 feet of the Waverly. No 
physical properties are given. Foerste quotes the following 
analysis : 

Silica 65.58 

Alumina 16.00 

Ferric oxide 5.51 

Irime 03 

Magnesia 1.25 

Potash 3.89 

Soda 82 

Titanic oxide 1.13 

Ignition 4.29 

Moisture 1.75 


About 3 miles southeast of Berea on Bear Mountain is a 
deposit of plastic shale of probable Pennington age. According 
to Foerste it fires to a light red color. 

Marion County 

The northern half of the county is underlain by residual 
clays from Ordovician limestones. In the southern half the 
New Providence shale occurs and is crossed by the Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad south of Lebanon. 

The Goodwin Brick and Tile Company has a plant at Leb- 
anon, located on the south edge of town. Both common brick 
and drain tile are produced. 

These are made from a residual clay derived from lime- 
stone, so that the depth of the clay is somewhat irregular and 
varies from 7 to 15 feet. It also varies from gray to red color. 
Some portions of the deposit contain fragments of chert, these 
being especially abundant in a 5-foot zone at the south end of 
the bank. The top clay gives much trouble because of its 
tendency to laminate and crack, and for large tile some of the 
bottom clay has to be added even though it has a higher shrink- 
age. If cracks develop in the brick or tile, it takes place within 
five minutes after they are molded. If not, no further trouble 
is experienced. 


Both the brick and tile are molded in a stiS-mud machine, 
and dried in the open air, the tile under sheds and the brick 
protected by boards. The ware is fired in a 30-foot circular down- 
draft kiln, the firing requiring 5 days. Both trial pieces and 
cones are employed, the temperature being sufficient to bend 
cone 010. The bricks are of a good red color and excellent ring. 

Mason County 

The only clays of importance are the flood-plain clays along 
the Ohio River. Residual clays may be found over the Ordovi- 
cian limestones but are not used. A small patch of Silurian 
shale may be found towards the eastern margin of the county. 

MaysviUe. Two brick plants are located a short distance 
east of Maysville, along the Ohio River. Both are using flood- 
l)lain clays, and both are located on the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Railway. The Louis\'ille and Nashville also reaches Maysville, 
80 that the product can be shipped by two railroads or by water. 

Spahr Brick Company. This firm has a large and well 
equipped plant about 2 miles east of Maysville, the product in- 
eluding common, pressed and rough texture brick. 

Fls, 36. General View, Sphar Brick Company, Mays' 

The section in the clay pit shows : 

Soli and top clay 1 (t. 

Light colored loamy clay, average 6-7 ft. Mazimum 15 (t 

Sand, not used 


There are a few pebbles in the elay and considerable very 
fine mica. 

The clay is dug with a steam shovel, loaded onto small dump 
cars and hauled up to the sheds. Here it is passed through 
rolls, and then a pugmill. Molding is done in a stiff-mud ma- 
chine, 30,000-45,000 brick being made in a day. Tunnel dryers 
are used, the brick taking 4-5 days to dry. There are 7 rectangu- 
lar kilns, 5 of these being down-draft. Steam under pressure 
is fed through i/4~i°'^h jets, with ^-inch holes, into the bottom 
of each grate, and this is claimed to give a forced draft which 
greatly reduces the time of firing. The burning takes 5 days. 

The bricks show a total shrinkage of about % inch, but the 
top elay in the bank shows more shrinkage than the bottom. 

No pyrometer is used and the completion of the burning ia 
judged by the amount of settle in the kiln. 

The common bricks are a good red color, and the rough 
texture bricks are fired to different shades, usually a deep or 
dark red. 

MaysviUe Brick Company. This firm operates a large brick 
plant located about % mile west of the preceding, and lying be- 

T\g. 3T. Kiln shedfl, Mayavllle Brick Company, MaysvUI 

tweeu the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway and the Ohio River. 
Only common briek are made. 


The section in the clay pit is: 

Soil '. 1 ft. 

Clay 8 ft. 

Sand 1 ft. 

There are some pebbles in the clay but these are usually dis- 
posed of by the crusher. The clay is dug with a steam shovel 
and hauled to the works in small dump cars. There it is passed 
successively through a disintegrator, a crusher, and then a soft- 
mud machine having an automatic device for sanding and strik- 
ing off the molds. 

The drying, which is done on pallet racks, requires about 
10 days as the clay is tender, and the firing carried out in Dutch 
kilns also consumes about 10 days. The settle amounts to 10-12 
inches in 40 courses. The plant has a daily capacity of about 
40,000 brick. The bricks are hard and of a good red color. 

Montgomery County 


There is a possibility of obtaining both the Niagara and 
New Providence shales in this county. Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 39) 
notes that on the Frenchburg-Jeffersonville road, about 2% 
miles east of Jeffersonville, a road branches off to the south. 
Just west of the forks the main road crosses a small run. At 
this point the Cuyahoga (New Providence) shale is exposed 
with a thickness of 17 feet. It contains scattered concretions and 
the beds below this are mostly sandstone. Other exposures are 
said to occur in the county but the shale does not show up very 

Nelson County 

Residual clays from limestones may be found in the north- 
eastern half of the county, while in the southwestern half the 
Ohio shale is present, and small areas at least of the New Provi- 

One clay working plant is in operation, viz., the Nelson 
Brick and Tile Company at New Haven. This was operated in 
1920 under the name of Boone and Bolden. The product con- 
sists of drain tile but common brick are also to be made. 


Company. New Have 

The material used appears to be a residual clay derived from 
the Ohio shale, for the latter outcrops all around the hill at the 
same level as the clay. Black shale is also exposed in the creek 
bed, and partly weathered shale has been found in the bottom 
of the pit. 

The top clay alone is used for small tile, but for large ones 
some of the partly-weathered shale is mixed with the clay. The 
clay has to be hauled a half mile to the yard, 

Powell County 

Powell County lies in the Knobs region and contains sedi- 
mentary rocks ranging from Silurian to Carboniferous, but none 
of them are used. In addition to these formations there are also 
alluvial clays along the valley of the Red River, and these are 
the only ones worked at present in the county. 

Several deposits of shale or clay have been noted in earlier 
reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey and reference to 
them is made below. 

Alluvlmj Clays 

Stanton. Atkinson and Baker are operating a plant located 
about V/i miles east of Stanton on the Lexington and Eastern 
division of the Louisville and Nashville Railway, The plant 


was originally owned and operated by H. Derickson who made 
drain tile, but the present owners are producing only common 

The clay pits are located in the Red River Valley, and are 
flooded during high water. The section, determined in part 
from boring is: 

Yellow flood-plain clay 22 ft. 

Blue "soapstone" 5 ft. 

Flinty limestone 3 ft. 

Ohio shale 

The clay is smooth and plastic, and is usually dug to a 
depth of 15 feet, only the 2 or 3 inches of top soil being stripped 
off. After the clay is dug it is hauled up a small incline and 
dumped into a stiff-mud machine without any previous temper- 
ing, or the addition of water. The bricks are dried under sheds 
and burned in Dutch kilns. The product is pale red in color, 
and the only kiln full which the present owners had burned was 
being used in the construction of the new Presbyterian church 
at Stanton. 

Clay City. Another deposit of alluvial clay is found along 
the Red River, on the J. M. Kennon place, situated on the Clay 
City and Hard wick road, 1 mile from Clay City. (Ref. 10, p. 
879). It was used for brick making at one time. The deposit 
is 6 feet thick with 2 feet of sandy overburden. The following 
properties are given for the clay: 

Plasticity Good 

Air shrinkage 6% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in 101 

Fire sJirlnkage 12% 

Oolor after firing Red 

Cone of Incipient fusion 1 

Cone of vitrification 6 

Filsoii Siaiion. Foerste (Ref. 11, p. 75) notes a dark plastic 
clay in the Lexington and Eastern Railway cut, 1 mile east of 
FiLson, on the Jesse Faulkner farm. It is described as a 7-foot 
bed of alluvial clay which rests on Waverly shale. The physi- 
cal qualities are described as follows : 


Plasticity Excellent 

Air shrinkage 7% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in 171 

Fire shrinkage 8% 

Color after firing .Grayish brown 

Cone of incipient fusion 4 

Cone of vitrification ~ 7 

Caebonifebous Clays 

Rosslyn, Easton (Ref. 10, p. 880) has noted the occurrence 
of claj'^ deposits on the John Wasson farm on the Rosslyn and 
Cat Creek road, 4 miles south of Rosslyn. 

The clays, which Easton claims are fire clays, are said to 
form a 3-foot bed at the base of the Pottsville conglomerate. 
Below the clay is a bluish plastic clay. The fire clay is very 
lean, and fires to a soft body at cone 11. 

New Providence Shale 

Stanton. The Cuyahoga shale is exposed as a deposit 17 feet 
thick, one mile north of the iron bridge on the Morris Creek 

Clay City, A deposit of bluish shale (Ref. 10, p. 71) 14 
feet thick, lying on top of Ohio black shale is found on the E. 
Rose place 1 mile east of Clay City. The properties are given 
as follows: 

Plasticity Very good 

Air shrinkage : 3% 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in 73 

Fire shrinkage 3% 

Color after firing Red brown 

Vitrification, at cone 7 

There is some doubt as to the age of this material. If it 
belongs to the New Providence shale formation, it shows a higher 
vitrification point than this shale usually does. The latter is 
nearer to that of the clays of the Irvine formation found in 
Madison Countv. 


Stanton, A greenish yellow clay, said by Easton (Ref. 10, 
p. 881) to be of Hamilton age is found in the Lexington and 


Eastern Railway cut 50 yards west of Stanton. The thickness 
of the deposit is not given. Easton gives the following prop- 
erties for it: 

Plasticity Pair 

Air shrinkage 4% 

Tensile strength, Jbs. per sq. in 102 

Cone of vitrification 7 

Color after firing Red brown 

Niagara Shale 

Virden. Easton (Ref. 10, p. 877) notes the occurrence of 
Niagara (Crab Orchard) shale in the first cut east of Virden 
on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The deposit is only 
4 feet thick and has 25-29 feet overburden. Unless found at 
some other nearby point in greater thickness and with less over- 
burden it is not to be regarded as a workable proposition. The 
shale fires to a dark brown color. 



In this chapter there are included not only the counties in 
which the Pennsylvanian rocks are the predominating surface 
formations, but also a few counties such as Lewis and Rowan, 
which it seems more desirable to include in this chapter because 
they lie east of the main belt of the Knob country. 

The clay and shale-bearing formations which may occur in 
this area are the following: 

Silurian Shales. The Estill and Lulbegrud shales if present 
in workable quantity are to be sought for only in the western 
part of Lewis County. 

Devonian Shales. The Ohio black shale is to be found in 
northwestern and western Lewis County, and is also found at 
a number of points along the western border of the eastern coal- 
field, bu£ in its fresh condition is of no value for the manufac- 
ture of clay products. In isolated outcrops it is indistinguish- 
able from the Sunbury shale, unless there are other key horizons 
associated with it. It is present in considerable quantity in 
the hills around Vanceburg. 

Mississippian Shales. The Mississippian formations under- 
lie a large part of Lewis County, Rowan County, and narrow 
belts along the drainage lines of Tygarts Creek and its tribu- 
taries in Greenup and Carter counties. A narrow belt also 
crosses the southeast portion of the area included in this chapter, 
extending from southwestern Bell County up to Elkhom City in 
Pike County. Furthermore, there is no straight boundary line 
between the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian formations along 
the western border of the eastern coalfield, the two being more 
or less interfingered as shown on the geologic map of the state 
issued by the Kentucky Geological Survey. 

The shale formations that may be present are the Bedford, 
Sunburj'^ and New Providence of the Waverly series, and un- 
differentiated shales of the Chester series. 

The Bedford shale can be used for brick but is not present 
in large deposits, nor as desirable as the New Providence. 


The Sunbury shale is of no value, being similar to the Ohio 
shale when fresh. If completely weathered it forms a ferrugin- 
ous clay. 

The New Providence shale is an excellent material for 
bricks, tile, hollow blocks, common red eartherware and some- 
times paving brick. It is worked only at Firebrick in Lewis 
County, but can be found at other points to the southwestward. 

The Waverly shales and sandstones form a large part of 
the surface of Rowan County to the north and west of More- 
head, and some of these may be of value for paving brick and 
sewer pipe according to Crider. (Ref. 8, p. 643). 

Chester shales are probably sparingly present in the area 
here discussed. 

Pennsylvanian. Pennsylvanian formations include the 
Pbttsville, Allegheny and Conemaugh series, and are of con- 
siderable importance to the clay-working industry. 

Pottsville. At the ba^e of the Pottsville* there is found an 
extensive, but not continuous, deposit of fire clay which has 
assumed great importance, and which is sometimes referred to 
as the Olive Hill fire clay because of the locality in Carter Coun- 
ty where it was first developed. 

Characters of the Olive Hill Clay. This fire clay deposit is 
made up of three different grades of clay known as: 1, flint; 
2, semi-hard, semi-flint or soft-hard, and 3, No. 2 plastic. 

The flint clay is very fine grained, has a conchoidal fracture, 
and in color is often buff or gray, but sometimes dark gray, black 
or even red. It occasionally grades into a sandy phase, which 
contains minute grains of quartz. At a few localities an oolitic 
variety of flint clay is found, which contains small oolites em- 
bedded in a matrix of normal flint clay. This variety was de- 
scribed by Graves-Walker as occurring in the Burnt House 
mine at Olive Hill, (Ref. 19), and he proposed the name of 
Aluminite for it. A peculiarity was its high percentage of 
alumina, which is not surprising considering, as shown by Qal- 
pin (Ref. 16) that the oolites are composed of the mineral Gibb- 
site or hydrarg\'llite, (AI0O3.3H0O). This oolitic type is no 
longer found at Olive Hill, but Crider has noted several other 
occurrences of it. (Ref. 8, p. 653). 

•This refers to the lowest part of the formation present in this area. 


While the pure flint clay is of high refractoriness, the de- 
posits of it may occasionally show impurities such as pyrite, 
concretions, and films of gypsum, the latter occurring in the ir- 
regular cracks that traverse the flint clay in all directions, but 
not in sufficient quantities to reduce its refractoriness. Quartz 
grains are present where the flint clay grades into sandstone.* 

A somewhat detailed study of the microstrueture of flint 
clays, made by Galpin, (Ref. 16), shows that the flint clay con- 
tains kaolinite, hydromica, pyrite, quartz, rutile, zircon, and 
tourmaline. All of these except the first two are commonly 
present in only small amounts. In the aluminite clay, gibbsite 
was identified in considerable quantity. 

The semi-hard clay difl^ers from the flint m being slightly 
softer, in having noticeable plasticity, and in showing the pres- 
ence of numerous slickensided surfaces which commonly tra- 
verse the clay in all directions. It is usually quite sharply sep- 
arated from the flint clay. Like the flint clay it may contain 
pyrite concretions and gypsum films at times, and in some mines 
it was coated on the slip surfaces with minute white specks of 
about 1/32 inches diameter. 

Galpin from his microscopic studies found that hydromicas 
were much more abundant than kaolinite. 

No. 2 plastic clay differs from the other two in having de- 
cided plasticity. It is softer than the semi-hard, but shows an 
abundance of sliekensides. It is the least refractory of the three 
fire clays found together. 

Relation of the three Fire Clays. A careful comparison of 
the sections shown in different mines brings out the fact that 
there is no definite order of deposition exhibited by the flint, 
semi-hard and No. 2 plastic clays. While it is true that a definite 
relationship may hold throughout one mine, it does not hold in all 
parts of the area in which these clays occur. In some mines 
practically nothing but flint may occur, in others only semi-hard, 
but none was seen where No. 2 plastic alone is found. 

It is not common to find any one of the three varieties form- 
ing the entire deposit in any one mine. 

Extent of Fire Clay Deposits. The three associated fire 
clays just described are found throughout a wide area of terri- 

*C. E. Bales has recently found some veinlets of galena in the flint clay. 


tory extending from the Ohio River on the northeast, to Elliott 
County on the southwest. Along the line of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Railway they are found from Aden on the east to More- 
head on the west. This is not to be taken as signifying that 
the fire clay occurs throughout this area, for there are locali- 
ties where it is lacking, indeed it probably represents a series 
of separate deposits which are somewhat closely connected. This 
seems to be shown first by the fact that in some localities drill 
holes have not encountered fire clay, and secondly that in some 
deposits the fire clay grades horizontally into sandrock. 

Roughly speaking the area within which the fire clay de- 
posits have been found is about 660 square miles. 

Within this area the development has been chiefly in a zone 
bordering the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, no company at 
present hauling its clay from points more than 5 miles distant, 
and then over private narrow gauge railroads. Much drilling 
has, however, been done in practically all parts of the area, and 
reserve supplies blocked out so that the several firebrick com- 
panies either own extensive undeveloped clay tracts or control 
the mineral rights on them. As time goes on and the supplies 
near the railroads become exhausted those farther away will be 

There is no doubt a considerable reserve tonnage in the dis- 
trict as a whole, but it would be impossible to state just how 
many years it is going to last. 

The thickness of the fire clay as determined from a study 
of the beds and drill records ranges from zero to 29 feet. The 
last figure is said to represent a bed of solid flint clay. The dis- 
tribution of working mines, and prospects so far as known are 
shown on the maps, Figs. 42 and 56. 

Relation of Fire Clay to Underlying Formations. The most 
prominent formation below the fire clay is the Maxville lime- 
stone, and at most localities where the fire clay occurs the lime- 
stone is found below it in the section. It is sometimes absent, 
due probably to erosion that occurred before the period of fire 
clay deposition, as at Iron Hill, Carter County, where Crider 
states that the flint clay rests directly on the Waverly sandstones 
and shales. In few cases does the fire clay rest directly on the 
limestone, but on the contrary it is usually separated from it 


by a red mottled plastic clay known as ** pinkeye," by sandstone, 
or by shale. Crider (Ref. 8) in his admirable detailed report 
on the Olive Hill district states that the pinkeye is calcareous, 
and furthermore that it is a residual deposit derived from the 
Maxville limestone. We have not found any pinkeye that was 
calcareous in its nature, nor can we agree with him that it is 
a limestone residual, for the reason that in many cases it does 
not rest directly on the limestone, there being sandstone some- 
times between them. It may be noted here that the pinkeye is 
usually a mottled clay, of low refractoriness. Occasionally, 
however, it is sufficiently pure to be used in fire brick. 

Immediately on top of the limestone there is sometimes a 
cherty mass that appears to have been altered by weathering, 
and which may be from 1 to 3 feet thick, as in the mine of the 
Ironton Firebrick Company at Enterprise, Carter County. 

The interval between the bottom of the fire clay, and the top 
of the limestone is exceedingly variable. Thus in a number of 
drill records examined it was found for example that the dis- 
tance from fire clay to limestone ranged from 1 foot 8 inches to 
25 feet. The highest figure represents nothing but sandstone, the 
pinkeye being absent. One section showed 22 feet of shale be- 
tween the limestone and the fire clay. In another section there 
was sandstone between the pinkeye and the fire clay. In still 
other cases the floor of the fire clay may be pinkeye at one place 
and sandstone at another, even within the same mine. 

There is no doubt that the fire clay is separated from the 
Maxville limestone by an unconformity, and this break may be 
above the shale and sandstone sometimes found overlying the 
lime rock. That this unconformity represents considerable 
erosion in places, and uneven erosion is shown not only by the 
variable thickness of the limestone, which ranges from about 
feet to 100 feet in the district, so that in some drill holes the 
lime is entirely wanting and the fire clay rests on Chester Sand- 

It is probable that some of the soft sandstone associated with 
and grading into the fire clay, and also the pinkeye lie above the 


Relation of Fire Clay to Overlying Formations. The ma- 
terial immediately overlying the fire clay may be coal, shale, 
sandstone, coarse conglomerate, or Pottsville pebbly sandstone. 

The coal found associated with the clay, is usually above 
the fire clay, and often rests directly on it. Occasionally it oc- 
curs within the fire clay deposit. It is rarely over 6 inches in 
thickness and may even be absent. 

The shale occasionally found above the clay appears to be 
conformable with it, and is sometimes quite carbonaceous. It 
may also contain concretions of siderite and pyrite. At Hay- 
ward there is between the shale and the fire clay a hard sandstone 
known as **whim rock," which is fine grained and contains 
small angular particles of flint clay. It is not a portion of the 
Pottsville conglomerate. 

At some localities notably at Grahn, the Pottsville con- 
glomerate rests directly on the fire clay in places, but in one mine 
there are found fiat lenses of a coarse conglomerate, consisting 
of pebbles up to an inch in diameter, in a matrix of quartz sand 
with mica scales. The- pebbles consist in part of shale and of 
siderite concretions, such as are found in the shale overlying the 
clay where this material has not been eroded. 

There is here then an unconformity between the Pottsville 
and the fire clay with its overlying shale, and a similar uncon- 
formity has been noted in other mines. The thickness of the 
Pottsville between the surface and top of fire clay is variable, 
and the range shown in the number of drill records examined 
ranged from 50 to 130 feet. 

In the sandstones overlying the fire clay, there are found one 
or several beds of a mottled clay known as ** Huckleberry clay," 
which is non-refractory. The thickness of the Huckleberry as 
seen in different drill holes varied from 2 to 15 feet. The in- 
terval between this clay and the fire clay in different drill holes 
ranged from 2 to 35 feet. In two holes where no fire clay was 
present there was 20 feet of sandstone between the huckleberry 
and limestone in one case, and 39 feet of shales and sandstone in 
another. In short the Huckleberry does not appear to occupy 
any definite position in the section above the clay. 

Age of the Fire Clay. There has been considerable discus- 
sion regarding the geologic age of the fiint and associated fire 


clays in the Olive Hill and surrounding districts, and the ma- 
jority of writers have usually referred to them as being of 
Pottsville and not Mississippian age. 

As time was not available to make a detailed study of the 
stratigraphic relations of these flint clays, it might seem pre- 
sumptuous to express an opinion on the subject of the age, but 
there is no objection to discussing the evidence that has thus 
far been published, and in pointing out certain structures that 
some appear to have overlooked. 

Most persons are agreed that the fire clay bed lies above 
what is known as Maxville limestone, and is separated from it 
by an unconformity, and this relationship is also recognized by 
the practical clay miner, who in prospecting for fire clay follows 
the top of the Maxville limestone outcrop. 

This position of the clay above the unconformity has led 
most people to class the fire clay as post-Mississippian and prob- 
ably Pottsville. 

Miller (Ref. 23) has, however, called attention to an occur- 
rence of **fiint clay" near Blairs Mill, Kowan County, which is 
overlain by limestone of Mississippian age, and has suggested on 
the basis of this evidence, the details of which are given under 
Bowan County, that the flint clays are of Mississippian age. 

While his argument appears weighty on first thought, there 
are two points opposed to it which cannot be ignored. 

Firstly, the so-called flint clay at Blair's Mill is not such, 
but is a clay of low refractoriness, and secondly so far as can 
be ascertained no limestone has been found above the fire clay 
in any of the hundreds of drill holes that have been put down 
in Greenup, Carter, Rowan or Elliott counties. All this evidence 
then tends to make the clay of post-Maxville age. 

The other point to be considered is the unconformity be- 
tween the fire clay and the Pottsville conglomerate, for there 
is no doubt that such a structural condition exists. We might 
assume that the clay was accumulating in basins on an undulat- 
ing surface, while the Pottsville conglomerate was being laid 
down in another area to the northeast, and that as the currents 
which deposited this coarse pebbly sandstone spread over the 
area where the Olive Hill clays occur, that they caused some 


erosion of the overlying shales, and of some of the fire day. 
Indeed in places the lire clay is entirely wanting, 

I am also informed by Dr. David White of the United States 
Qeological Survey that the fire clays carry a Hora which has been 
determined to be of Fottsville age. A specimen collected 
by us from the shale overlying the fire clay in the Harbison- 
Walker mine at Soldier has been identified by Dr. White as 
Lepidodeudron obovatum, which is upper Pott^ville. This shale 
lies conformably on the fire clay, and in many places is separat- 
ed from the Pottsville conglomorate by a disconformity. 

This evidence would therefore seem to place the clay in the 
Pottsville division of the Pennsylvanian. 

Comparison has been made by some of the Olive Hill, Ky., 
flint clays, and the Scioto Furnace, Ohio flint clays, the asser- 
tion being made that they belong to the same deposit. 

rig. «. Conglomerate below ftre clay on ridge south of ftrebrlok. 

While there was no opportunity to make an exhaustive 
study of the Ohio occurrences still a visit to one of the large 
mines there brought out the fact that the Scioto clay reminds 
one more of the semi-hard Kentucky clay, than the flint clay, 
and moreover there is above the clay a peculiar bed of lean ore 
not noticed in the Kentucky district. There is, too, at a lower 
horizon than the clay a peculiar conglomerate containing large 

c ot K— 6 


and more or less angular fragments of what appear to be quartz- 
ite, but which when examined under the miscrosr^ope look like 
a silieified fossiliferous limestone. 

This same type of rock is found a little below the level 
of the fire clay beds, which outcrop on the ridges south of Fire- 
brick, Lewis County. Nothing like it w^as observed in any of 
the mines of Carter or Rowan counties. 

Boyd County 

Boyd County is underlain entirely by rocks of the Penn- 
sylvanian system, with the exception of a narrow strip of al- 
luvial deposits along the Ohio River. 

Of the Pennsylvanian rocks, the Conemaugh series forms 
the surface in that portion of the Big Sandy drainage area south 
of Catlettsburg. (Miller, Ref. 23). It shows a prevalence of red 
and purple shales which should be looked into by those interested 
in the manufacture of clay products. The other Pennsylvanian 
formations forming the surface belong to the Allegheny series. 

Underlying the Allegheny series is the Homewood sandstone, 
regarded as the top of the Pottsville, which outcrops in the val- 

Shales of Allegheny Series. The Allegheny series contains 
deposits of shale, which at times appear to be of promising char- 
acter for the manufacture of products made from red-burning 
clays. Unfortunately time was not available to undertake a 
detailed study of these. 

Plastic Fire Clay of Allegheny Series. The most important 
clay resource of the Allegheny formation is the plastic fire clay 
associated with the Vanport or Ferriferous limestone. 

According to Phalen (Ref. 25, p. 113), the fire clay usually 
lies 10 to 40 feet above the top of the Homewood sandstone 
(Pottsville), and between coals Nos. 5 (Brookville) and 6 (Low- 
er Kittanning). If coal No. 5 is absent the clay may lie even 
nearer to the Homewood sandstone. 

This clay has been opened and worked in the hills both 
southeast and northwest of Ashland, and north of Catlettsburg, 
but some of the most important mines are located in Carter Coun- 
ty where the same fire clay also occurs. 


The dip of the formations towards the center of the basin 
causes the clay to disappear near the mouth of the Big Sandy 
River, and it does not reappear north of Louisa in Lawrence 
County on the south. From Louisa it outcrops in the hills in 
the form of a great arc following the outer edge of the basin and 
i-oming back to the Ohio river at Ashland. (Ref. 23.) 

The plastic fire clay while associated with the Vanport lime- 
stone, is sometimes above and sometimes below it. Indeed at 
some of the mines in Carter County no limestone is found with 
the fire clay; moreover even in the same mine the thickness of 
the limestone may vary. 

It seems probable that at the horizon of the Vanport lime- 
stone there is a clay deposit of variable, and sometimes appre- 
ciable thickness, and that certain beds in this deposit may be 
of refractory character, but that these refractory clay beds do 
not all occupy the same position in the clay member, nor are 
they always of great extent. 

As proof of these facts we see that the fice clay is sometimes 
found above and sometimes below the limestone, and the state- 
ment of clay miners that the fire clay sometimes becomes im- 
pure, necessitating abandonment of the mine, or the driving of a 
new tunnel into another part of the deposit. 

While the Vanport limestone fire clay horizon is usually 
referred to as a plastic clay, nevertheless it here and there con- 
tains pocket® of true flint clay, which may be completely sur- 
rounded by the plastic material. 

The variation which this fire clay may show is illustrated by 
the following sections : 

1. Section at mine in ridge facing Ohio River, 1 mile north- 
west of Ashland (Crider, Ref. 8, p. 672) : 

Sandstone 12 ft. 

Goal 3 ft. 

Plastic fire clay, not used 2-3 ft. 

Sandstone 10-12 ft. 

White to drab potters clay 5 ft. 

Shale with iron ore 4 ft. 

No. 2 plastic clay 3%-4 ft 

Ferriferous limestone 1-7 ft. 

No. 2, white, plastic, fire clay 3-8 ft. 



Forty feet above the top of preceding section is a thin coal, 
and 100 feet above the limestone is a ferruginous flint clay which 
was worked some years ago. 

Phalen (Ref. 25, p. 114) gives a section from 1 mile we^t of 
Ashland which is somewhat unlike the preceding in that the 
limestone is missing: 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone, llgiht brown 20+ 

Coal 2-h 

Shale, light drab 2 

Clay, light brown G 

Clay, dark t rab 1 6 

Clay, drab, with scattered iron ore concretions. 

(Vanport limestone horizon) 2 

Shale, light drab, sandy 1 2 

Shale, drab, ranging up to 8 

Clay, dark drab to black, grading into light drab at 

middle 1 6 

Clay, drab 3 

Flint clay 1-4 

Clay, drab 3 6 

Clay, dark drab, almost black 3 

Clay, drab 8 

Four feet from the bottom of the lowest layer is a 1-foot bed 
of light drab flint clay. 

There does not appear to be as much demand for the plastic 
fire clay as formerly, as the flint clay, and semi-hard clay ob- 
tained from the Olive Hill district and westward to Morehead 
are more refractory, although some is still mined to mix with 
the less plastic clays of the Olive Hill type. 

In Boyd County the only plastic fire clay mine in opera- 
tion at the present time is that worked by the Ashland Fire 
Brick Company, 1 mile northwest of Ashland. There is here 
a somewhat extensive deposit of fire clay which has been worked 
for a number of years. The clay outcrops in the ridge facing 
the Ohio River, and above the Homewood sandstone. Several 
tunnels have been driven into the hill. The section exposed at 
the opening being worked in the summer of 1921 was : 


SandstoDe and sandy ahale .. 

PoUery clay 

Vanport limeatone 

Fire clay, average (Range 4-14 ft.) .. 
Very aandy Bhale, called ganUter ... 

2-4 ft. 

4 ft. 

S^-8 ft. 

10 fL 

FlK. 41. Entrance 

Fusion tests which have been made on the clays from this 
mine shows that the refractorinefs ranges from eone 30-33, al- 
ihough the lowest bench sometimes drops to cone 29. Cone 31 
would perhaps be an average for the bed. 

In the next ridge to the northward along the river the same 
plastic fire clay horizon is found, and up to 6 or 8 years ago 
Chas. Taylor and Sons Company of Cincinnati bought considera- 
ble clay from a mine located near Amanda Station. 

The same clay was at one time worked by the 'Kelly Brick 
Company in Rast Ashland. 

Crider (Ref. 8, p. 672) states that near Cliffside Park, be- 
tween Ashland and Catlettsburg, the plastic fire clay was former- 



ly used by the Weaver Pottery Company, but that here it over- 
lies the Vanport limestone. 

Potlsville Fire Clay. Below the Homewood sandstone there 
is a clay associated with coal No. 4 (Upper Mercer Coal). This 
coal and its underclay outcrop in the eastern part of Ashland, 
and in li)05 was first utilized by the 'Kelly Brick Company of 
Ashland {Phalen, Ref. 22), but the firm is no longer in opera- 
tion. The same clay is said to occur on Catletts Creek. 

Fhodplain Clays. The most important of these are found 
underlying the terraces bordering the Ohio River, and have 
been utilized in the manufacture of common brick. They are 
apt to be somewhat sandy. 

Clay Working Industry. The clay products produced in 
Boyd County at the present time include refractory and com- 
mon brick. Pottery was formerly manufactured also. 

Askla'nd Fire Brick Company. This company has two plants 
at Ashland. One of these is the old plant of the Clinton Fire 

Fls. fi. Ashland 

Company, Aahland. 

Brick Company, built in 18!)0, and taken over by the present 
firm in 1900. This has a daily capacity of 20,000 brick. 

The other plant, which was erected by the Ashland Pire 
Brick Company in 1886 has a daily capacity of 40,000 brick. 

At the larger plant the semi-hard and flint clays which 
came from the mine at Hayward, Carter County, are dumped 
in piles where they are allowed to weather. Some plastic clay 
from the company's mine northwest of Ashland is also used. 


All of the clays are put through a dry pan and then 
screened. That which is to be used for standard shapes is tern- 






,^ . 

- -"X 

^ '-^wti 

iL.. n 









-*■ >■ 

- J* 

Fig. 13. Weathering clay, Ashland Fire Brick Company, Ashland. 

pered in a pugmill and molded in a stiff-mud machine, while 
clay for special shapes is tempered in wet pans and molded by 

The different grades are of course made of different mix- 
tures of hard and plastic clay, and grog. 

The standard brick are dried in tunnels at a temperature 
of 200°P., while the hand-molded shapes are dried on floors. 
Tracks for the ears lead from the drying department to all the 

The plant is equipped with 12 circular down-draft kilns 
and 2 rectangular ones. Natural gas is used as fuel. No pyro- 
meters or cones are used at the present time, but a recent cone 
test bent over No. 13 in top of the kiln. 

The two grades of brick produced are known as the Crown 
and Savage. The two following analyses of the company's best 

















grade of brick, and other tests of their product have been kindly 
supplied to us by the firm: 



Ferric oxide 




Titanic oxide 

100.42 100.12 

Specific Gravity 

Ashland Crown steam pressed process 2.20; 2.19; average 2.20 

Ashland Savage hand molded and hand pressed 2.63; 2.59; aver. 2.61 

Softening Temperature 

High ditty requirements— <jone 31 

Ashland Crown steam ipressed iprocess — cone 32-33 

Ashland Savage hand molded, hand pressed — cone 33 

End Cold Crushing Strength in Total Pounds 

Ashland Crown Ashland Savage 

Test No. 1 24,450 10,000 

Test No. 2 26,500 11,650 

Test No. 3 24,500 12,400 

Average 25,150 11,350 


The bricks were heated one hour at 1350 degrees centigrade, 
plunged into five inches of running cold water for 'three minutes, air 
dried for five minutes and returned to the furnace. The average loss of 
the Crown after 10 immersions was 6%, after 20 it was 12%, and after 
30 it was 19%. The Ashland Savage lost none after 10 immersions, 
3% after 20, and broke on the 28th losing 28%. 

Slag Action 

Cavities were drilled which were filled with open hearth slag at 
1350 degrees C. The action continued for two hours after which the 
brick were cut through the centers of the cavities and the penetration 
was measured. 

Ashland Crown Ashland Savage 

Depth of penetration 00 inches .10 inches 

Depth of pentration 00 inches .15 inches 

Average penetration 00 inches .13 inches 



After heating for 5 hours at 1400 degrees C, the following linear 
changes were noted upon cooling: 

Per Cent 

Ashland Crown expanded 45 

Asbland Savage expanded 18 

Allowable expansion for high duty brick 1. 

Allowable contraction 1.5 

Load Test 

When the bricks were heated on end at 1350 degrees C. for IV^ 
hours under a pressure of 25 pounds per square inch, the following 
comp res-si on s wece noted (Sitandard high duty test): 

Ashland Crown Ashland Savage 

Original dimensions 8.84x4.33x2.45 9.0x4.6x2.53 

Final dimensions 8.78x4.31x2.44 8.87x4.5x2.53 

Compression 0.06 inches 0.13 inches 

Per cent compression 68 per cent 1.44 per cent 

Allowable compression, 3% and in many cases the limit is 5%. 


Ashland Crown 14.25% 

Ashland Savage 18.55% 

Water Absorption 

Ashland Crown 6.48% 

Ashland Savage 9.28% 

Some time ago we desired to get the shrinkage of our flint and 
semi-flint Kentucky fire clays as taken from the mines and after being 
weathered. The results of these tests which were also made at the 
Mellon Institute, are as follows: 
















line) 1.74 


red) 3 51 



Flint clay (from mine) 
Flint clay (weathered) 
Semi-flint clay (from mine) 
Semi-flint clay (weathered) 

These tests show that generally longer weathering and larger 
amount of water are coupled with greater shrinkage. 

Means and Russell Iron Company. This firm has a plant 
at Bellefonte at which common bricks are made by the soft-mud 
process. The clay is obtained from a flood-plain deposit. 


i7. J . Oate and Company. This company also makes com- 
mon red building brick, using a clay obtained from the river bot- 
tom of the Ohio. 

'Kelly Brick Company, This firm was formerly engaged 
in the mnaufacture of common brick. It is no longer in opera- 
tion and the machinery is being removed. 

Breathitt County 

Breathitt County is underlain by Pennsylvanian formations, 
and so any materials of value to the clay worker are to be sought 
chiefly in this system of rocks. Aside from this there is the 
possibility of finding some flood-plain clays along the North Fork. 

The Pennsylvanian might also possibly yield under clays 
of coal beds. 

A reconnaissance was made along the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway, chiefly to ascertain whether any clays or shales of 
commercial value were associated with the coal beds. 

Elkatawa, The mine of the Breathitt County Coal Com- 
pany, shows from 18-24 inches of soft gray slightly gritty clay 
in the roof. It is somewhat iron stained and contains thin 
streaks of coal. 

The material (Lab. No. 2457) has moderate plasticity and 
fires to a red brick, but it is not refractory. 

It was not possible to obtain a sample of the underljdng 

Jackson, The Davis Coal Company, whose mine is located 
J^ mile north of Jackson on the Louisville and Nashville Rail- 
way is working the No. 3 coal. The roof is a very hard shale, 
and the floor of the coal is sandstone, so no sample was collected. 

On the west side of the Louisville and Nashville Railway, 
about 150 yards north of Jackson, a good bed of shale is ex- 
posed. The section shows : P^ j^^ 

Sandstone 5 

Gray laminated shale 12 

Siliceous ironstone 2 

Gray shale 4 

Shale with concretions 8 

Soft red-brown shale 3 

Greenish sandy shale 1 

Sandstone 3 



The 12-foot bed of shale weathers to small flakes. It is 
black when fresh, gray when weathered, slightly gritty and con- 
tains scattered flakes of muscovite. 

The shale (Lab. No. 2458), when ground up and mixed 
with water is not highly plastic, and yet it is sufficiently plastic 
to work. It fires to a bright red, but has to be burned slowly 
in order to prevent black coring. It could be used for common 

Haddix, The three coal mines located about Haddix all 
have sandstone overlying the coal, and a hard shale of probably 
red-burning character below. 

About 114 miles southwest of Haddix in the Louisville and 
Nashville Railway cut, the section shows: 


Sandstone 5 ft. 

Laminated shale with concretions 8 ft. 

Coal % ft. 

Clay* with sand and concretions 3 ft. 


The clay and shale do not appear to be of promising charac- 

Riverside. About 200 yards west of Riverside on the 0. 
and K. Railroad, and on the property of the K-U Land Com- 
pany there is a deposit of clay whose section shows: 

Soil 3 ft. 

Wihite sandy clay 5 ft. 

The clay is white, plastic, and very sandy, but tough when 
wet. It has scattered limonite stains. 

The clay is interesting partly because although very sandy 
it possesses excellent plasticity, and partly because of its firing 

The following tests of this clay (Lab. No. 2459) represent 
its character: 

Lime carbonate None 

Working quality Good 

Plasticity Very good 

Air shrinkage (linear) 7.5% 

Ck)lor after firing Buff 

Steel hard 950* C. 


ire Shrinkage 












950° C 

1090° C 

1130° C 

1250° C 

This clay shows a curiously high plasticity in spite of its 
sandy nature. It would seem to be a good material for making 
face brick, and could be also used for common brick. It burns to 
a good buff color. 

Gauge. East on (Ref. 10, p. 766) notes a clay overlying the 
Dean coal, from Shock Branch, 1 mile above Gauge. The ma- 
terial is said to have 5 per cent fire shrinkage, to be nearly vitri- 
fied at cone 11, and to burn to a buff color. 

Carter County 

Most of the surface formations of Carter County are of 
Pennsylvanian age, the Pottsville conglomerate being an im- 
portant one. In the eastern part of the county the Pottsville 
dips below the surface so that the rocks of the Allegheny series 
are the prominent ones. 

The Mississippian formations are exposed in narrow belts, 
notably in the valley of Tygart Creek and its tributaries. There 
are also smaller areas as in the valley of Big Sinking Creek, 
around Grahn, and between Olive Hill and Grayson. 

Since the important beds of flint and semi-flint fire clays 
occur at the contact of the Pottsville and Mississipian, they will 
be found outcropping only where the former has been cut 
through by erosion. 

They are not found east of Aden, and from there eastward 
dip rapidly below the surface. Crider (Ref. 8, p. 659) states that 
at Denton the oil drillers struck 10 feet of flint clay at a depth 
of 625 feet below the surface. Between it and the Pottsville 
conglomerate above there was 15 feet of blue shale, and im- 
mediately below it there was limestone. 

The plastic fire clays of the Vanport limestone horizon are 
caught in the hill tops just east of Hitchins about 230 feet above 
the railroad track, and the same bed is mined south and east of 



Shales of probable Pennsylvania!! age, and worthy of de- 
tailed investigation are seen between Olive Hill and Grayson 
and they should also be looked for in the region around Kil- 

Allegheny Clays. An important deposit of plastic fire clay 
occurs at the horizon of the Vanport or Ferriferous limestone. 
The material may underlie or overlie the limestone, while at 
other times the limestone is absent. In some places more than 
one bed of fire clay appears to be present. Lenses of flint clay 
are occasionally found within the plastic fire clay. Indeed it 
seeii!s probable that there is not one distinct fire clay bed 
throughout the district, but instead several locally refractory 
portions of a rather extensive deposit of plastic clay and clay 
shales. This view is held partly because the relation of the fire 
clay to the limestone is not always the same, and partly because 
in some mines the fire clay may grade into nonref ractory plastic 

In refractoriness the clay is not equal to the fiint and semi- 
hard clay found at the base of the Pottsville. It is worked at 
Ashland, Denton and Hitchins, and has also been mined in the 
past at other localities. The beds rise to the west, and at the 
most western point where it is found, viz., Hitchins, the fire clay 
is near the tops of the ridges. It does not occur either very far 
to the northward of the line of the Chesapeake and Ohio Rail- 

The shale formations of the Allegheny series should be 
looked into as it seenis possible that some of them at least may 
serve for the manufacture of clay products. Attention is called 
to one deposit between Olive Hill and Grayson and another at 
Torchlight, Lawrence County. 

Conemaiigh, The Conemaugh carries purple and red shales 
in portions of Lawrence and Boyd counties but no tests regard- 
ing their characters are available. 

Pleistocene. The alluvial clays underlying terraces along 
the Ohio River have been used for brick making at Ashland and 
Bellefonte. No doubt additional ones could be found at other 


FiBE Clay Deposits 

The fire clay deposits are described in general from east to 


Willard. No fire clay mines are being worked around Wil- 
lard at the present time. 

Crider (Ref. 8, p. 662) states that a bed of fire clay rests 
directly on the Ferriferous limestone, and has been worked at 
several places, but that the operations could not be successfully 
continued because of high freight rates. 

The section below the Ferriferous limestone is given by him 
as follows: 

Ferriferous limestone. 
Thin bed of flint clay. 
Thin bed plastic Are clay. 
Black shale 8-10 ft 
Thin coal. 

He suggests that the black shale could be used for sewer 
pipe, but gives no tests of its qualities. If it were available for 
the purpose mentioned it would have to be worked by under- 
ground methods. 

An analysis of the fire clay given by Phalen (Ref. 25, p. 116) 


Silica 60.54 

Alumina 25.89 

Ferric oxide 1-75 

Liane 53 

Magnesia 12 

Potash 1.85 

Soda «5 

Manganous oxide 26 

Sulphur trioxide 12 

Ignition 7.43 

Moisture 2.05 


Two fire clay mines were formerly in operation at this lo- 
cality. One on the northern edge of Willard was worked by 
Dr. H. B. Fraley, the other on the eastern edge of town by the 
Willard Fire Clay Company. 


The following analysis of clay from Praley's mine has been 
supplied by C. E. Bales : 







Denton. The only mines which are being steadily operated 
in this vicinity are those of the Harbisdn-Walker Eefraetories 

Company, aouth- 

Company. These are situated on a private branch railroad 
about 2 miles south of Denton, on Davies Branch of Dry Pork, 
and about 200 feet above Denton station, 

A narrow gauge steam railway runs from the Ashland Coal 
and Iron Railway tracks at Denton, to the clay mine, and also 
to the company's coal mine still farther up the valley. 

The material is a slightly micacenus, plastic fire clay, 
which runs about 4H feet thick. It grades downward into a 


very sandy micaceous clay. Above the fire clay is a thin layer 
of coal, and this in turn is capped by about 50 feet of impure 
shales, the lower two feet of which is sometimes found to be re- 
fractory. These top shales as a whole are red burning, and 
contain scattered concretions of siderite and pyrite. Pyrite is 
also at times found in the fire clay. 

There is no limestone lying immediately above the clay 
here, as is the case in the mines at Ashland, but a bed of it oc- 
curs about 100 feet above the clay. A coal bed, said to be the 
No. 7 coal, lies about 60 feet above the fire clay. 

The clay is mined by an entry running south into the hill, 
and from this cross entries will be driven. 

Several other openings have been made in the same clay 
bed between the present mine and Denton, but the workings 
are no longer accessible. 

J. H. Burdett in 1907 opened a mine one mile east of Den- 
ton on the north side of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway tracks. 
At the time of our visit the mine was not accessible and the fol- 
lowing data are taken from Crider's report (Ref. 8, p. 669) : 

The opening lies about 50 feet above the level of the rail- 
road, and it is underlain by a massive sandstone. The Ferri- 
ferous limestone is absent at the coal horizon, but a coal which 
outcrops at the level of the railroad track is said by Crider to 
be No. 4. The section at the mine is: 

Ft. In. 

Coal 14 

Black plastic clay 4-6 

Dark, hard, sJiliceous clay 2.4 

Good, No. 2 plastic clay 6 

Sand rock, called ganister 4 

The No. 2 clay may be cut out at times by siliceous boulders. 
A flint clay is said to occur about 55 feet above the plastic clay. 

The clay from this mine has been shipped to Pennsylvania 
and Ohio. Mr. Burdett, of Ashland, Ky., claims that the clay 
underlies an area of 3 square miles. 

The following analysis of plastic fire clay from the Bur- 
dette mine has been supplied by C. E. Bales : 


Silica 56.96 

Alumina 29 »0 

Ferric oxide 1 62 

Lime 46 

Magnesia 24 

Alkalies 65 

Ignition 10.17 


This clay is used in the manufacture of fire brick. 

The Denton Plastic Clay Company in 1908 opened a mine 
200 yards east of Denton on the north side of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Railway and about 200 feet above the track. It is not 
being worked at present, and has not been for several years. 

Crid^r (Ref. 8, p. 668) gives the section as: 

Light gray shale. Ft. In. 

Laminated micaceous sandstone 6 

Dark clay 4 

Coal 10 

Black plastic clay, not worked 5 

Dark hard siliceous clay, not used 4 

Plastic clay with silica boulders 8 

Ganister 4 

It is said to be at the Ferriferous limestone horizon, al- 
though there is no limestone present. 

nUchins. General Refractories Company, This Company 
has deposits of plastic clay which lie near the top of the ridges 
about li/o miles east of Ilitchins. A standard gauge track is laid 
from the plant up to the mines. 

The fire clay, which Crider claims is at the horizon of the 
Ferriferous limestone lies about 35 feet below the No. 7 coal, 
about 140 feet above No. 3 coal, and about 240 feet above the 

The fire clay, which varies from 4-12 feet in thickness, with 
an average of 6 feet, is very plastic, of gray color with iron 
mottlings. Near the top the clay becomes grayish black and is 
overlain by a very thin layer of coal. The clay shows occasional 
flakes of mica and thin crusts of gypsum. At one point in the 
bed the clay also showed pockets of oolitic material, the oolites 



being about 1/32 inch in diameter. Lenses of flint clay are o> 
casionally found in the plastic clay, and these may be as much 
as 8 feet lonff and 2 feet thick. This flint clay is a hard, grayish- 
black clay, with eonchoidal fracture and spots of a carbonaceous 

The floor of the fire clay bed is a sandy, micaceous clay, 
while overlying it there are ferruginous shales, with thin layers 
of sandstone. It is interesting to note that in the overlying 
shales there are small pockets of flint clay of excellent refrac- 
toriness, but none of them are sufficiently large to work. 

A part of the fire clay has been obtained from open cuts, 
run around the face of the hill, the overburden being removed 
with a steam shovel. From these open cuts tunnels are driven 
info the ridge where the overburden is heavier and the clay is 
mined from these. 

Several old workings lie in another ridge about % mile 
northwest of the present workings. 

The plastic fire clay can be traced eastward towards Den- 
ton, but it is not found west of Ilitchins as the rise in the beds 
would bring it above the tops of the ridges in that direction. 
The following section given by Crider (Ref. 8) is that seen in 
a hill east of the fire brick works and near the "Blue Jay" coal 


mine to the clay opening at the head of the branch. The entire 
thickness of the section is about 300 feet : 

25 Crest of high hill. Ft. In. 
27 Covered. Ferriferoua Umostone comes near 

hase 70 

26 Plastic clay containing thio irregular pockets 

of flint clay 2S 

25 Gray laminated shale whlcb weathers to a 

bluish clay .— 2 

24 Gray plastic clay with two Inches of dark clay 

la the center 1 

23 Black ahale 21 

22 Coal 13 

21 Irregular bodies of stratified clay 4 


20 Pale drab stratified fire clay 20 

19 Dove colored fire clay with streaks of iron 

oxide 12 

18 Dove colored fire clay, uniform in color 18 

17 Gray micaceous sandstone about 15 

16 Covered , 

15 Sandstone 

14 Shale 3-4 

13 Coal 1 

12 Draw slate 1 

11 Coal 21 

10 Bone 3 

9 Coal ; 14 

« Fire clay 

7 Shale 25 

6 Sandstone changing to shale at same horizon 50 

6 Gray shale 25 

4 Coal 3 

3 Sandstone, hard on bottom and shaly on top.. 6 

2 Black shale 20 

1 Sandstone. 

''The fire clay occurring from 18 to 21 inclusive is the most 
promising horizon of the section. At horizon 26 is a deposit of 
laminated, micaceous shale which contains irregular blocks of 
flint clay. In places it occurs in kidney -shaped forms. The color 
is not uniform, but shows finely stratified lines of white, light 
gray to dark gray sand in the clay.'' 

Crider further believes that there is also a possibility of 
getting the Olive Hill flint clay below the surface at Hitchins, 
because a bed 10 feet thick was struck in one of the oil wells 
at Denton, at a depth of 625 feet below the surface. Mississippian 
limestone underlay the flre clay, while above it there was 15 
feet of blue shale, overlain in turn by the Conglomerate sand- 
stone. The rise of the strata to the west would bring the Olive 
Hill flint clay horizon to within about 350 feet of the surface 
at Hitchins. Crider expresses the belief that if flint clay of 
good quality and 7 to 10 feet in thickness could be found below 
Hitchins, that it would be more economical to the mine even 
at that depth, than it would be to haul it from the Olive Hill 
district. Its presence or absence could be determined by means 
of a core drill. 


Crider gives the following analyses and tests of the clays 
from the Hitchins property. They were made by J. M. Knote, 
and the comments following are also his: 




•0 G) 




00 c 


"^ 9 


"^ rti 

^. •^^ 




















34 3290" F. 










24% 3W2" F. 










28 3182" F. 

4. 8.48 64.38 .71 23.54 .50 .08 1.51 .99 31 3182« F. 

(1) ** Flint clay from bottom seam. Shrank from 12 to 
11 1/10 inches on burning. No shrinkage after cone 9. An ex- 
cellent clay and while a little higher in silica than those of Olive 
Hill, it should make very good brick. It is as good as the best 
Missouri, Pennsylvania and Maryland flint clays.'' 

(2) * aplastic clay, shrank from 11 to 12 inches on dry- 
ing and to 101^ inches on burning. A very plastic and strong 
bond clay. It dries with a normal shrinkage and bums to a 
dense strong body at cone 3 and remains thus without change 
to cone 11. It would doubtless show little change up to cone 
22-25. Its burning shrinkage is normal. The clay is as plastic 
and strong as any but the exceptional fire clays. It vitrifies 3 
or 4 cones lower than the Maryland clays, but about the same as 
most Pennsylvania clays. The Missouri clays are much more 
porous at cone 11. In refractoriness it is just about the same 
as the best Savage Mountain clay or Pennsylvania clays. I con- 
sider it a very good bond clay. 

(3) ** Plastic clay. Shrank from 12 to 11 2/8 inches on 
drying and to IQi^ inches on burning. Nearly out at cone 3, 
all out at cone 7-9. Similar to No. 2 in every way." 

(4)** Flint clay. Shrank from 12 to 11 2/10 inches. All 
out at cone 9. This clay is a second grade flint clay and while 
of probable value for second grade brick, it is not as valuable 
as clay No. 1." 

The plastic clay has a fusion point of cone 30-31. 

The plant of the General Refractories Company is located 
in the valley, just east of Hitchins and on the north side of 
the Ashland Coal and Iron Railroad Company's tracks. The 
works, which has a daily capacity of 75,000 brick, was built in 


1912, is of fire proof construction, and the machinery is all 
operated by electricity. Coal for fuel is obtained from a mine 
in the No. 3 coal bed, located along the track leading up to the 
fire-clay deposits. 

The raw materials used are plastic fire clay from the de- 
posits at Hitchins, and flint and semi-hard fire clays from the 
company's mine near Grahn. 

The clay is all ground in dry pans, screened, and then 
tempered in pugmills. Standard brick are molded in a stiff- 
mud machine, with circular cutter, and subsequently repressed. 
They are dried for 3 d^ys in concrete drying tunnels. 

Special shapes are molded by hand and are dried on con- 
crete floors, one of which is on top of the tunnel dryers, and 
the other at the level of the floor of the building. The drying 
tunnels are heated by waste heat from the kilns, the tempera- 
ture of this when entering the tunnels being 200°F. The lower 
floor is heated by exhaust steam. 

There are 16 down-draft circular kilns, whose- diameter is 
36 feet, with a stack for each pair of kilns. Firing requires 
9 days, and it is said that cone 12 is bent over in the bottom 
of the kilns. The total shrinkage of the clay is 9/10 inch per 

The chief product of the plant at present is the Carter or 
best brand, and this is used for hot blast stoves. 

Music, Plastic fire clay has been mined on Norton's 
branch near Music by Messrs. Hatcher and Stewart of Ashland, 
but none has been shipped for several years. They report that 
the claj^s show considerable irregularity in quality when fol- 
lowed from one i)lace to another. 

The Kentucky Gem Coal Company formerly worked a 
plastic fire clay at Norton 's Branch, two miles west of Rush. The 
clay was about 9 feet thick. Several entries were driven, but 
each one finally ran into hard rock, so that the mine was aban- 
doned. This clay they state was about 100 feet below the No. 7 

Crider (Ref. 8, p. 671) notes that a No. 2 plastic fire clay 
was opened on the Lexington and Carter County Mining Com- 
pany's property just north of the Ashland Coal and Iron Com- 
pany's railway. It is said to be 9 feet thick, and to rest on 


ganister rock like the day at the Burdette mine east of Denton. 
There is a thin bed of coal near the top of the clay. 

A flint clay is reported to have been formed 2 miles north of 
Music, but this is probably one of the lenses of this material 
which are sometimes found associated with the plastic fire clay. 

Aden, Kerns Mining Company. The mine of this com- 
pany is on land leased from J. M. Saulsberry, <and is located 300 
feet west of the station on the north side of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Railway. It was not in operation during 1921. At this mine 
the tunnel has been driven about 300 yards and shows the fol- 
lowing section : » 

Pt In. 


Blue sfciale 4-10 

Coal (sometimes in the shale) 14 

No. 1 flint clay %-l 

No. 1 semi-hard clay 2-3 | 

White, sandy, iron stained clay. 

Mr. C. E. Bales has supplied us with the following analysis 
of gray plastic clay from Aden : 

Silica 51.40 

Alumina 31.88 

Ferric oxide 1.92 

Lime 32 

Magnesia 14 

Alkalies 56 

Ignition 12.80 


The material is used in the manufacture of fire brick. This 
is the most easterly mine in flint clay. Between Aden and Orahn 
the section at the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway tunnel (Ref. 
8, p. 649) shows: 

Weathered shale 7 it. 

Coal 1 ft. 

Poor fire clay 11 ft. 

Iron ore 1% ft. 

Flinty limestone in beds 6 ins. to 3 ft. thick. 


Louisville Firebrick Works. This company's mine is lo- 
cated about 1 mile west of Aden, on the south side of the Ches- 
apeake and Ohio Railway. It adjoins that of the General Re- 
fractories Company, and both mines have the same air course. 
The section is. 

Pottsville conglomerate. 

Black shale 8 It. 

Black plastic clay 1 ft. 

Flint clay 0-1 ft. 

Semi-flint clay 4-5 ft. 

Red tilay 

Neither the black plastic clay nor the flint clay extend 
throughout the entire mine, and where absent the semi-flint clay 
is correspondingly thicker. We are informed that since visiting 
this locality the fire clay has passed into a sandstone. 

General Refractories Company. The mine of this company 
is located on the north side of the Chesapeake and Ohio Rail- 
way, about 1 mile west of Aden, and adjoining the mine of the 
Louisville Firebrick Works. 

A drill hole record supplied by the General Refractories 

Company gives the following section at this mine: 

Ft. In. 

Su«rface material 3 

•Sandstone 22 

"Slate" 1 

•Sandstone 6 

Sandy No. 4 clay 6 

iFlint clay 3 

Semi-hard clay 2 4 

Pinkeye and yellow ocher 1 2 


Miscellaneous Occurrences. The following additional notes 
on the occurrence of flre clay in the vicinity of Aden are given 
by Crider (Ref. 8, p. 650). 

On the P. F. Maddix land, 1 mile south of Aden, and near 
the ford across Big Sinking River, a 60-foot tunnel driven into 
the hill showed : 


Coal 1% ft. 

Fire clay (15-24 inches of this Is flint) 8 ft. 


The most eastward extonsioD of the clay and limestone noted 
by Crider is on the Big Sinking River, on the south side of the 
stream, and just above the mouth of Hall's Branch. 

A number of lire elay openings have been made on the Big 
Sinking River south and southeast of Olive Hill, but most of 
Ihem are remote from transportation. 

Another locality noted by Crider (Ret. 8, p. 650) is the 
Prater Jline on Dry Fork, 2 miles north of Aden, where in an 
entry driven 180 feet into the hill the section showed: 

Shale root 2 ft. 

No. 4 (ire clay 3 ft. 

Coal 2 K. 

Flint clay 2 ft. 

Semi-hard clay 2 It. 

Pinkeye 2 tL 

Loiilsrillc Fire JirUk IVoris. This company has two fire 
brick plants at Orahn and has also driven several tunnels into 
the fire elay deposits, but all o£ these are not being worked at 
the present time. 

Two openings have been made on either side of a ravine 
lo.-ated about 1/4 mile north of the works, and the one on the 
south side was being worked in 1021. At these two mines the 


Pottsville conglomerate rests directly on top of the fire clay at 
many points in the mine, although occasionally shale and an- 
other conglomerate come in between them. 

These two mines are known as No. 1 and No. 2, and the gen- 
eralized section is: 

Pottsville conglomerate sandstone (exposed) 40-80 ft. 

Conglomerate with pebbles of clay, siderite and shale 0-1 V^ ft. 
Black shale, with smooth, shining surfaces, along 

the bedding planes 5 ft. 

No. 2 plastic clay 0-2 ft. 

Flint clay 0-2 ft. 

Semi-hard clay 3-5 ft. 

Pinkeye clay 1-3 ft. 

Green or yellow clay shale 


The geologic relationships are so different here from those 
seen at other mines as to deserve special mention. 

The Pottsville conglomerate as will be noted from the above 
section rests in places directly on the clay, a fact not noted else- 
where. It is a sandstone containing irregular patches and streaks 
of quartz pebbles, the latter at times reaching the size of a 
pigeon's egg. 

Immediately under the Pottsville conglomerate, and sharply 
separated from it are thin lenses of a conglomerate, which reach 
a maximum thickness of 18 inches, and which in the mine could 
be traced for a distance of 200 to 300 feet. This conglomerate, 
which is composed almost entirely of pebbles, has a matrix of 
micaceous sand, and the pebbles which vary from round to 
angular consist of sandstone, clay, black shale and siderite con- 
cretions, but there are none of quartz. In places this conglomer- 
ate rests on black shale, in others, w'here the shale has been worn 
away it rests on the flint clay, the pebbles of the conglomerate 
extending into the clay. There is consequently a disconformity 
between the conglomerate and the black shale. 

The black shale, which in places has be?n eroded, contains 
concretions of siderite and also pyrite, and the latter may be 
also found in the flint clay. This black shale ranges from 0-18 
inches in thickness. 



The fire clay, which is mostly flint clay towards the mine 
entrance, but mostly semi-hard in the mine, averages about 4 
feet in thickness. 

In the inactive mine, on the north side of the ravine, the 
Pottsville conglomerate forming the roof shows small stalactites 
of lime carbonate, formed by the water seeping through the 

At the south end of the workings of Mine No. 1, the fire 
clay appears to be bent into a monoclinal fold. This has also 
involved the overlying shale and sandstone, to such an extent 
that portions of the sandstone have been forced into the shale 
in dike-like bands. No coal was seen in this mine. 

In a mine which Crider describes (Ref. 8, p. 648) as being 
located on the north side of Grassy Fork, Vi D^ile up stream from 
Grahn station, he states that the limestone outcrops on the south 
side of the creek, and that in places the bottom of the clay is 
very uneven, due to the irregularity of the underlying lime- 
stone' surface, because where there are sink holes like depres- 
sions in it these are filled with clay, thus making the latter doub- 
ly thick. In places, it is stated, the limestone may ri>e and al- 
most cut out the clay. In this mine too the conglomerate at 
times rests directly on the clay, but at others is separated from 
it by a thin bed of shale with a thin coal bed (0-8 inches) at its 

The following tests of clays from the mines of the Louisville 
F'ire Brick Works at Grahn were kindly supplied us by the com- 

No. 1 Flint Clay 
Bone Branch No. 2 Clay 


Silica 44.09 

Alumina 39.96 

Ferric oxide 2.20 

Lime .30 

Magnesia tr. 

Alkalies .24 

Ignition loss 13.72 

No. 2 Mine No. 3 Clay 

39 23 






53 00 








100 20 













Plasticity Poor Fa 

Air shrinkage, in. per ft. 3/16 
Fire shrinkage, in. per 

ft 13/16 

Color at 1315° C Cream 

Cone of fusion 34 

As previously stated the Louisville Fire Brick Works has 2 
plants at Grahn, but only one was running in 1921. 

The clay is hauled to the mines in dump ears drawn by 

For standard-sized brick the clay is run through dry pans, 
screened and then after moistening it is molded in a semi-dry 
press machine, and repressed. For hand-molded shapes the clay 
is tempered in a wet pan, and then transferred to the molding 

The two plants are together equipped with 15 circular down- 
draft kilns, and firing takes 5 to 6 days. No pyrometers or cones 
are used. The two plants have a combined capacity of 60,000 
9-inch brick daily. 

Olive Hill, This locality was the site of the first flint fire- 
clay mining operations in eastern Kentucky, and also of the first 
fire brick plants erected in the flint clay district, as noted in 
Chapter VI. 

At present there are two fire brick plants in active operation, 
at Olive Hill, both of them being located north of the town, 
and on the north side of the valley. 

One of these is the plant of the Harbison-Walker Refrac- 
tories Company, and the other that of the General Refractories 
Company, which in 1909 took over the property of the old 
Olive Hill Fire Brick Company and expanded it. Both com- 
panies have mines located several miles north of Olive Hill, and 
these are the nearest active ones to the railroad at present. 

In former years there were several mines operated much 
nearer town. One of these was the famous Burnt House Mine 
described under **Inaetive Minos" below. The active operations 
will be taken up first. 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, The mines which 
this company is at present working are located about 4 miles 
north of Olive Hill in the valley of Trough Camp Branch. They 


are known as the Quail Mine and the Old Garvin or Mud Liek 
Mine, the former being situated on the north side of Trough 
Camp Creek and the latter on the south side. 

The narrow-gauge road leading up to the mine pas<;es 
through the hill from Henderson's Branch to Trough Camp 
Branch, a distance of 1300 feet. One-half of this tunnel driven 
from the Trough Camp side was in clay, but the balance was cut 
in shale which cut the clay out. 

An extension of the old Garvin or Mud Lick mine is known 
as the Scott entry. A general section in the deposit is as fol- 

Shale or sandston'e roof 

Coal 0-1V6 ft. 

No. 2 plastic clay 0-2 ft. 

Flint clay 3-6 ft. 

Semi-hard clay 3-6 ft. 

Pinkeye or sandstone.' 


In the Scott extension of the Mud Lick mine for example the 
clay is about 6^ feet thick, and consists of both flint and semi- 
hard, there being but little plastic clay in that mine. The flint 
clay may be shiny, dull and earthy, or sandy in appearance, and 
in places pinches out completely, leaving only semi-hard clay. 
The coal is usually found above the clay and is overlain by shale 
or sandstone. The No. 2 plastic when present is always below 
the coal and above the flint clay. Pinkeye usually forms the 
floor and lies above the Maxville limestone whose outcrop on the 
hillside below the mine shows a thickness of 60 feet. In some 
places a sandstone overlies the limestone and on the outcrop 
may be 15 feet thick. 

The Garvin (Mud Lick) mine, (Ref. 8, p. 623), was opened 

in 1900 and by 1913 the west entry had been driven 1900 feet 

into the hill. The section in 1913 as given by Crider was ; 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone, fine grained 

Black "Huckleberry shale" 10 

Coal 2 

Plastic clay, with leaf impressions 2 

"Boulder.flint" clay 3 

Semi-hard clay «- 3 

Pinkeye clay 3 



Crider states that lens shaped bodies of sandstone known 
as ** silica boulders'' or ** nigger heads" were present, and us- 
ually at the top of the clay. They consist of minute grains 
of sharp sand cemented by fire clay. 

The Quails Mine (Ref. 8, p. 618) was also noted by Crider. 
It averages about 2 feet flint clay and 4 feet No. 2 plastic clay. 
In places there is 12-18 inches of semi-hard. 

Among the interesting features of this deposit are ** silica 
boulders, ' ' found in all parts of the clay bed but mostly at the 
top, and which may contain angular fragments of flint clay. 
This is similar to the whim rock found over the clay at Hay- 
ward. The flint is separated into two grades, of which the No. 
1 may show oolites and No. 2 iron sulphide. Leaf impressions 
are said to occur both in the No. 2 plastic, and in the silica 

The following analyses have been supplied by the Harbison- 
Walker Refractories Company as illustrating the three types of 
fire clay found in the Olive Hill district: 



Ferric oxide 


Magnesia .... 







Fire Clay 







29 77 
















99.86 100.28 99.86 

The fusion point of carefully selected flint clay is said to 
be between cones 33 and 34. 

The factory of the Harbison- Walker Refractories Company 
is connected with the mines by a narrow gauge road, and the 
clay cars are run in on a trestle from which the clay can be 
dumped into storage bins. From these it passes to dry pans, 
then through screens to the bins for ground clay. Tempering 
is performed in wet pans. 

Standard brick are molded in a stiff -mud machine and hand 
repressed, while special shapes are molded by hand. 

C of K— 7 


All of the drying is done on steam-heated floors. TIier£ are 
16 circular down-draft kilns, and the firing takes 7^ to 9 days. 
It is said that cone 12 is turned over at the bottom and cone 14 
at the top, but the completion of the firing is judged by the ap- 
pearance of the kiln. 

The plant has a daily capacity of 60,000 brick, and the 
product includes fire brick for blast and open-hearth furnaces, 
locomotive blocks, stove brick, etc. The brands are Hearth and 
Bosh, high grade, No. 1 and stove. 

General Refractories Company. The mines being operated 
by this company are located 5 miles north of Olive Hill, in the 

Fig. 51. Kilns at General Refractories Company works, Olive HIU. 

ridge between Trough Camp Branch and Smoky Creek. The 
generalized section is: 


Shale or sandstone 

No. 2 plastic clay 0-1% ft. 

Flint clay „ 0-4 ft. 

Semi-hard clay _ 1-i ft. 

Pinkeye clay or sandstooe 

Limestone _ 

The total thickness of the fire clay varies from 4-6 feet, and 
is mostly fiint and semi-hard clay. The No. 2 plastic clay is 


sometimes found above the flint clay, while the pinkeye gen- 
erally forms the floor. The fire clay may occasionally show 
specks of siderite, pyrite or gypsum. 

The flint and semi-hard clays are usually mined together, 
but occasionally the flint is sandy and then has to be rejected. 

The clay is hauled to the plant over a narrow gauge rail- 
road. It is first run through a crusher, and from this to a dry 
pan and screen. The different clays and ground grog are stored 
in separate bins. An ingenious automatic mixer is used to com- 
bine the clays and grog in proper proportions, and this machine 
may be adjusted to yield different mixtures. The mixture is 
tempered with hot water in a double pugmill, and in a single 
shaft pugmill. 

Molding is done in a stiff-mud machine, even some shapes 
which are commonly molded by hand being formed in this man- 

Most of the bricks are repressed in power driven represses, 
but a few are handled in hand power ones. 

The bricks receive 3 days' drying in a tunnel dryer, but in 
addition the flat top of the tunnels is sometimes employed for 
drying. There is also a large steam-heated drying floor. The 
plant has 27 circular down-draft kilns, and firing requires 9 
days. No cones or pyrometers are used. The daily capacity of 
the works is 90,000 brick. The factory is spaciously laid out 
and of fireproof construction. 

Inactive Mines 

Burnt House Mine. This was opened up about 1899 by the 
Olive Hill Fire Brick Company, but has been worked out. 

Greaves-Walker (Ref. 19, p. 467) notes that a remarkable 
feature of this mine is its natural roof of sandstone from 1 foot 
to 18 inches thick, which is so strong and hard that rooms 30 
feet wide have stood for 4 or 5 years without the use of props. 
The section given by him is : 


1. Sandstone roof 1-1% ft. 

2. Black, higihly carbonaceous shale, firing 
dark buff and fusing cone 31 

3. No. 2 plastic clay, not always present.... 1 ft. .or less 

4. Flint olay with oolites, called Aluminite. 

5. No. 1 flint clay. Light cream color, sandy 15 to 
on outer edge of deip'osit, and there con- (30 ft. 
sists of flint clay matrix with quartz 
crystals 6 ft. average 

6. Semi-hard clay. White, buff, red, black, 
gray, and gray spotted red. 

7. Sandstone floor. Very uneven. 

Greaves-Walker gives a number of interesting analyses of 
the different grades or kinds of clay from this mine as follows : 



























Ferric oxide.. 






































Cone of fusion 






I, II. Semi-hard clay, gray to black color. III. Semi-hard 
clay, white color. IV. Semi-hard clay, red color. V. Flint 
clay. VI and VII. Siliceous flint clay. VIII. Oolite flint clay, 
called aluminite. 

Analysis No. 8 represents a peculiar type of flint clay of ab- 
normally high alumina content, due to the presence of oolites 
in the clay. Greaves-Walker suggested the name of Aluminite 
for this clay (Ref. 19). Galpin (Ref. 16) later showed that 
these oolites consisted of the mineral gibbsite. Crider has noted 
the occurrence of oolitic flint clay at one or two other localities, 
and the writer has noticed small amounts of it in the plastic fire 
clay at Hitchins. 

Greaves-Walker calls attention to the fact that in the School 
House mine, just across the ravine from the Burnt House mine, 
none of the Aluminite clay was found, showing that it is evi- 
dently of very local occurrence. 

Another locality for oolitic flint clay mentioned by Crider 
(Ref. 8; p. 630) is on Frank Rivers' land, near the head waters 


of Sugar Camp Branch, and within a few hundred yards of the 
Lewis County line. 

Olive Hill Calcine Company mine (Ref. 8, p. 631). This is 
no longer in operation, but was located on the right fork of Hen- 
derson 's branch, 1 mile from Olive Hill. (No. 36, Fig. 42). The 

section given by Crider is: 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone and shale 

Hard shale, leaf impressions 20 

Coal 2 

No. 2 flint clay, with leaf impressions 1^6 

Plasitic clay, with leaf impressions 1^6 

Flint clay 2% 

Semi-hard clay 2% 


Here it is interesting to note that there is neither pinkeye 
clay nor sandstone between the fire clay and limestone. The 
'* silica boulders'* may come in from the top and cut out the 
clay, and Crider admits that they may represent the filling of 
erosion channels. However changes in the thickness of the clay 
are said to be due more often to inequalities of the floor than 
of the roof. 


Ironton Fire Brick Company. The company has a plant 
at Ironton, Ohio, and until recently had been operating almost 
exclusively on Ohio clay, but in the future intends to use noth- 
ing but clay from its Kentucky holdings. The firm has recently 
opened a mine on the south side of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Railway about ^4 mile southwest of Enterprise. In August, 
1921, the tunnel had been driven about 300 feet. The clay, 
which is all of the semi-hard type, so far as the tunnel had been 
driven, is more siliceous on the outcrop, and the section shown is : 

Ft. In. 

Black shale with mud cracks 

Coal, not continuous 2 

Semi-hard fire clay 4 

Mass of tightly packed chert, with ferruginous 

clay in the openings l%-2 

Limestone 3 

Covered 20 



The limestone is evidently not very thick at this point. 
The following analysis of the fire clay has been supplied 
by the Ironton Fire Brick Company : 

Silica 44.84 

Alumina 38.89 

Ferric oxide 1.36 

Lime 52 

Magnesia 40 

Alkalies 53 

Ignition 13.72 

Cone of fusion 33 

Chas. Taylor and Sons Mine. This firm has a fire brick 
plant at McCall on the Ohio River in Greenup County, and an- 
other one at Cincinnati, Ohio. Their mine is located % mile 
southwest of Enterprise on the south side of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Railway. 

The order of succession of the different materials in the 
mine, as given by the mine foreman is : 

Slaty shale. 

Whim rock (sandstone). 


Sand rock. 

Semi-hard clay with little flint. 


Green or yellow ocher. 

In drilling over 6,000 acres of ground they found the pink- 
eye reaching a maximum thickness of 18 feet, but in places it 
was replaced by sandstone, which occasionally also took the 
place of the fire clay as well. In some bore holes the flint clay 
was found to rest directly on the limestone. The ** huckleberry'' 
clay may be almost directly over the fire clay or 50 feet above it, 

Hayward. Ashland Fire Brick Company, This company 
has fire clay mines and also a refractories plant located at Hay- 
ward, both being on the south side of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Railway tracks. The company has about 2,700 acres of clay 
land. There are two mine openings in the hills east of the 


works, the two being known as the Gartrell and Hayward. The 

workings are connected. 

The general section in the mine is : Ft In. 


Sandstone (Whim rock) 18 

Coal ~~ 1-2 

PUnt clay. Average 3 

f Semi-hard clay - - 4 

<S, No, 2 plastic occaalonally with 
SsndBtone or pinkeye clay. 

The following comments are to be made on this section. 
The whim rock is a hard sandstone, which is rarely over 18 
inches thick and rests directly on the fire clay, except where a 

Ashland Fire 

layer of coal 1-2 inches thick lies between. It sometimes shows 
small angular inclusions o£ what appear to be fire clay. In places 
the whim roek dips, and the fire clay appears to grade into it. 

Below the whim rock, there may be flint clay, semi-hard 
clay or No. 2 plastic, or in other words the three grades of day 
show no regularity of arrangement. Most of the clay is of the ' 
semi-hard type, and there is very little of the plastic. 

The flint clay ranges from light to dark in color, and oc- 
casionally shows red tints. It is sandy in places, and in the 
Hayward mine grades into a soft sandstone towards the entrance. 


The semi-hard is mostly above the flint in one mine, and 
mostly below it in the other. It shows the usual sliekensides, 
and these dip usually east or west, both sets not being found in 
the same part of the deposit. 

The shale overlying the whim rock contains abundant Stig- 
maria, some of these being as much as 10 feet long. 

Gypsum in thin films is occasionally found in the joints of 
the fire clay, and there are also sometimes found small white 
specks of undetermined character. The floor of the mine may 
be either pinkeye or sandstone. 

Crider has also referred to this mine and notes the occur- 
rence of shale, which partly underlies the clay. The sketch 
which he gives resembles an unconformable relation betn^een 
the two. 

The clay from the mines is in part shipped to Ashland for 
use at the works of the company at that place, and in part used 
at Ilayward. 

The Hayward plant has a daily capacity of 25,000 brick, 
and produces both standard fire brick and special shapes. They 
are all made of a mixture of semi-hard and flint clays, which 
are stored in piles before use. 

The clay is ground in a dry pan and tempered in a wet pan 
or pugmill. The standard shapes are molded in a stiff -mud ma- 
chine and the special shapes by hand. All drying is done on hot 
floors. Firing is done in down-draft kilns. 


J. D. Patton Mine. This is located just west of Soldier and 
northwest of the Harbison-Walker Eefractories Company's 
Mine. It was idle at the time of our visit. The general section 
in the mine is: 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone (asphaltic) ^ 


Coal, not continuous 0-2 

No. 2 plastic clay 0-12 

Flint clay 1% 

Semi-hard clay 2-4 

Sandstone or pinkeye. 


The shale roof shows asphalt seepages, the material from 
these having soaked down into the cracks of the clay. 

As can be seen from the section there is very little of the 
No. 2 plastic clay, and in places it is absent. It varies from 
light colored portions to others which are almost black. 

The flint cla^ averages 18 inches or less and sometimes is 
very sandy. 

The semi-hard fire clay is the chief kind found in the mine, 
and runs usually from 3 to 4 feet thick. Its fracture surfaces 
may be coated with thin crusts of gypsum. 

Crider also makes reference to the Patton mine (Bef. 8, 
p. 638) in his report. 

The following analysis by C. E. Bales, is of clay from the 
J. D. Patton mine: 

SUica - 56.20 

Alumina 31.22 

Ferric oxide 180 

Lime 14 

Magnesia ^ 13 

Alkalies 46 

Ignition 10.06 


This clay has been used in the manufacture of fire brick. 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Company Mine. This is lo- 
cated just south of Soldier and on the south side of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Railway tracks. 

The fire clay averages 3^/^-5 feet in thickness, and about 
one-third of this is flint clay. There is little No. 2 plastic clay. 
Neither the flint clay nor the semi-hard clay occupy any definite 
position in the fire clay deposit. 

The roof is shale with a thin layer of coal under it at times, 
while the fioor is pinkeye or sandstone. 

In mining the clay, the semi-hard and flint clays are mixed. 
The following analysis of No. 2 plastic clay, from the Harbi- 
son-Walker mine has been supplied by Mr. C. B. Bales : 


Silica 48.52 

Alumina 36.04 

Ferric oxide 1.98 

Lime tr. 

Magnesia None 

Alkalies 40 

Ignition 13.10 


P. Bannon Pipe Company. This firm has about 300 acres 
of clay holdings in the vicinity of Soldier. A mine has been 
opened up % mile north of Soldier, and a tunnel driven about 
180 feet. The roof is said to be sandstone, and the fire clay 
about 5 feet thick. It consists of flint and semi-hard. 

The mine is not being operated at present. 

Ashland Fire Brick Company, Clinton Mine. This mine 
was formerly operated by the Clinton Fire Brick Company, 
and for a time after the Ashland Fire Brick Company absorbed 
the former corporation they also continued to work it. It has 
not, however, been worked for several years, as it is more con- 
venient to get the clays at Hayward. The fire clay was from 
5 to 61/^ feet thick, and ran about 25% flint and 25% plastic. 
It had a shale roof and sandstone floor. 

Richards Clay Mining Company. This company is prepar- 
ing to ship clay from a mine located % mile northeast of Soldier. 

Miscellaneous Localities. Crider ^Ref. 8) notes several 
other openings around Soldier, one of these being 2^ miles 
north of this locality. 

One occurrence noted by him is on the J. Pence land 1 mile 
east of Carter, and on a branch of Buffalo Fork. The section 
recorded is: 


Covered 8 ft. 

Oolitic flint clay 4 ft 

Impure sandy flint clay 1% ft. 


Crider claims that at the extreme north end of a hill facing 
Buffalo Fork, the fire clay was found at two horizons, one at 


the base of the conglomerate, and another 20 feet above its base. 
As we have not seen this section we are unable to verify it. 

No7i-refractory Clays. The new Midland Trail between 
Olive Hill and Grayson has a number of cuts along it in which 
Pennsylvanian shales are exposed, and which are worthy of more 
detailed investigation than we were able to give them in this 
reconnaissance work. 

One of these cuts is along the road about 3 miles south- 
west of Gregoryville. Here the section shows about 15 feet of 
soft gray clay shale, with limonite mottlings, and occasional con- 
cretions of limonite. The full extent of the deposit can only be 
determined by boring or test pitting, but a sample was collected 
by trenching down the face of the bank from top to bottom. 

The following data represents the results of some tests made 
on this material (Lab. No. 2448) : 

Lime carbonate None 

Working quality ExceUent 

Plasticity Excellent 

Slaking time 30 minutes 

Air shrinkage (linear) 5% 

Color after firing Buff 

Steel hard 950" C. 

Fire Shrinkage Absorption 

% % 

9^0" C 2.5 8.0 

1050° C •... 6.0 8 

1070° C 7.0 1.5 

1130° C 8.5 0.2 

1250° C 7.5 0.6 

This is an excellent buff-burning clay which should make a 
good face brick. It may possibly prove useful in paving brick 
and sewer pipe. 

ELi.iOTT County 

This county is undeveloped so far as its clay resources are 
concerned, due partly to the fact that there are no steam lines 
of transportation entering the county, and partly because fire 
clays can still be obtained from more easily accessible localities. 


It seems probable, however, that there may be considerable 
reserves in this county, some of these being held by large com- 

Deposits of fire clay which in some cases are over 20 feet 
thick have been reported. 

Crider (Ref. 8, p. 641) reports fire clay outcropping in the 
town of EUiottsville a short distance below the postoffice. It is 
also said to show on the Jesse Bryant place near the head of 
Andy White branch, where it is 30 f ^et above the limestone with 
sandstone between, while farther down the same branch the clay 
rests dii-ectly on the limestone. 

Again on the Walker branch 2 miles below EUiottsville, the 
flint-clay shows 7 feet thickness. 

Greenup County 

Greenup County lies in the northeastern corner of the state. 
Most of the county is underlain by Pennsylvanian rocks, but 
the Mississippian is exposed along Tygarts Creek and its 
branches. Along the Ohio River there is a narrow strip of river- 
terrace deposits which might yield pockets of alluvial clay. 

The flint fire clay and its associates have been pretty well 
tested out by drilling in this county, especially in the Tygarts 
Creek drainage area, but all of the clay found at the fire clay 
horizon is not of refractory quality nor is the Mississippian lime- 
stone always present. In fact, from Coal Branch, 1 mile north 
of Greenup, up to Tongs, it is absent. North of Tongs it forms 
thin bands around the hills around the point between the Ohio 
River and Tygarts Creek. At Limeville a bed of greenish re- 
fractory shale is found over the limestone, and at the flint clay 
horizon. It is only where the Mississippian rocks are exposed 
that the flint and associated fire clays will be found outcropping. 

In the extreme eastern part of the county, near Russell, 
the plastic fire clay horizon of the Vanport limestone is accessi- 

At the present time no fire clay mines are being operated 
in Greenup County. Some years ago the Chas. Taylor and Sons 
Corapanj'-, of Cincinnati, operated a fire clay mine on the south 
side of Sehultz Creek, 6 miles south of McCall, where the firm 


has a fire brick plant. The section given by Crider (Ref. 8, p. 

659) is; 

FL In. 

Coarse grained sandstone 100 

Shale ~ 8 

Coal 2-6 

No. 2 plastic dark blue clay 3 

No. 1 flint clay » 5 * 


The clay is inferior to that mined in the Olive Hill district 
and the company is now obtaining its supply from its mine near 
Enterprise, Carter County. 

The two following analyses are given by Gardner (Ref. 13, 
p. 204) of fire clays from the Tygart Fire Brick Company at 
FuUerton. These are supposedly from the mines on Schultz 
Creek. I is No. 1 flint clay and II is No. 2 fire clay. 

I. II. 

Silica 42.52 67.62 

Alumina 35.81 19.93 

Ferric oxide 3.24 1.26 

Lime .34 .29 

Magnesia .12 .14 

Potash .20 1.41 

Soda .20 .22 

Titanic oxide 2.00 1.60 

Sulphur trioxide .09 .12 

Ignition 14.13 6.58 

Moisture .51 .68 

99.16 99.77 

Chas. Taylor and Sons Companj'', successors to the Tygart 
Firebrick Company, have a fire-brick plant located at McCall 
postoffice, opposite Portsmouth. The product consists of fire 
brick and special shapes and the plant has a daily capacity of 
40,000 brick. The raw material used is obtained chiefly from 
the company's mine at Enterprise. The clay is tempered in 
wet pans, and the bricks are molded in a stiff -mud machine and 
repressed in hand-power presses. Drying is all done on heated 
floors, and firing in down-draft kilns, of which there are 6 round 
and 3 square ones. Cone 9-10 is bent over in the bottom of the 


The brands are Tiger Steel, Tiger Crown and Tiger. The 
company also manufactures a brick of special refractoriness 
which bears the trade mark of Tayco, and which is made of dif- 
ferent clay from the other brands. 

The following data on the Tiger Steel brand of brick made 
by Raymond M. Howe of the Mellon Institute, have been sup- 
plied by Mr. Taylor: 

Snica 59.46 

Alumina 36 07 

Ferric oxide 2.72 

Lime 68 

Magnesia 48 

Alkalies 41 

Ignition 00 

Cone of fusion 32 

Ksox County 

Little is known regarding the clay resources of this county. 
Crandall and Sullivan (Ref. 5) in their report on the coalfield 
around Pineville Gap, give a number of sections showing clay 
under the coals, but no mention is made of its character. 

The only clay being worked in this county is at Barbours- 
ville, where the Barboursville Brick Company is manufacturing 
common brick from a deposit of alluvial clay which is 6-14 feet 
thick and underlain by sand. 

The clay is ground up in disintegrators, tempered in a pug- 
mill, and molded in a stiff -mud, end-cut machine. The bricks 
are dried by artificial heat, and fired in circular down-draft 

The plant is located at the junction of the Louisville and 
Nashville and C. and M. Railways. 

Lawrence County 

An interesting shale has been sent to the Geological Survey 
by Mr. C. E. Stafford of Huntington, W. Va., who states that 
the material is found overlying the Peach Orchard coal seam 
at Torchlight, Kentucky. 


The material is a dark gray shale, said to be from 2-5 feet 
thick, with the coal as a floor, and sandstone as a roof. It would 
not be practicable to work it alone, but it is claimed that the 
shale could be easily worked in connection with the coal, which 
is 4 feet thick. 

The following tests of the shale (Lab. No. 2472) were made 
on a sample supplied by Mr. Stafford : 

Plasticity Fair 

Slaking time 12 minutes 

Air shrinkage (linear) 3% 

Steel hard, not ove* 1260* C. 

Firing tests. 

Temp. Fire Shrink. Absorption Porosity Color 

% % % 

950** C 1.5 8.2 25.4 Buff 

1050" C 2.0 6.7 21.2 Buff 

1150** C 2.0 6.5 Buff 

1250** C 2.0 4.5 Buff 

1310* C 4.0 1.3 7.8 Gray buff 

1430* C Overfired. 

This is a good material which burns to a good product and 
a splendid buff color. It should be of use in the manufacture of 
face brick, and could probably be used in a flue lining or sewer 
pipe mixture. It is not a fire clay as it is overfired at 1430° C. 
While the plasticity is not high, it is sufficient to permit its be- 
ing molded in a stff-mud machine. 

Lee County 

Most of this county is underlain by Pennsylvanian forma- 
tions, but along the Kentucky River between Evelyn and Beat- 
tyville the Mississippian shales are exposed and might supply 
brick material. 

At the mine of the Beattyville Coal Company, 2 miles west 
of Beattyville, the coal has a hard shale roof and a hard sandy 
shale floor. 

At the mine of the Kentucky River Coal Company, 11^ 
miles east of Beattyville, a similar hard shale overlies the coal, 
while the floor is of sandstone. 

No tests of the shale were made in either case. 


Letcher County 

This county is all underlain by Pennsylvanian rocks except 
a narrow strip of Mississippian along the Pine Mountain thrust 
fault. If the Mississippian is of any value the best place to work 
it would be in the vicinity of Jenkins as it is near the railroad. 

At McRoberts in mine 213 of the Consolidation Coal Com- 
pany, the Elkhorn Coal has a roof of blue slaty shale, and a clay 
parting about 3i/^ feet below the roof. This parting which varies 
from 1 to 40 inches in thickness, with an average of 18 inches, 
is hard, black, free from grit, but slakes easily. The material 
(Lab. No. 2460) is to be classed as a lean non-calcareous shale, 
which fires to a red, fairly hard body, and is not refractory. 
The material below the coal is like that forming the parting. 

At mines 214 and 215 of the same company, located l^ mile 
east of McRoberts on the Louisville and Nashville railroad, the 
same clay parting is found, but it is only from 1 to 6 inches 

At Jenkins, the Elkhorn coal in the mine of the Consolida- 
tion Coal Company, shows the same parting as at McRoberts, but 
here it runs about 16 inches thick. 

Lewis County 

Clay-hearing Formations, This county lies entirely without 
the Pennsylvanian area. The larger part of it is underlain by 
Mississippian formations. 

Thus the Waverly formations occur in the hills along the 
valley walls, and form the surface formations in most of the 
county, with the* exception of a narrow belt along the western 
border of the county, one extending up the Ohio Valley and one 
up the deep valley of Salt Lick. 

The shale formations found in the county are the Estill, 
Ohio, Bedford, Sunbury and New Providence. 

The Estill is to be looked for only in the western part of 
the county. Easton (Ref. 10, p. 861) gives some partial tests 
of a sample from **Carr's Fork of River Road," which he states 
is very plastic, with 5% air shrinkage, 5% fire shrinkage, and 
vitrifying at cone 1. It burns to a dark red color. 

The Ohio and Sunbury shales on account of their carbona- 
ceous and gritty character when fresh are of no value. 


The Bedford shale is rarely present in large qnantities, and 
is not to be regarded a3 the best tj^e of shale for making clay 
products. A sample (Lab. No. 2446) was collected from a point 
2 miles south of Vanceburg, not because the deposit is commer- 
cially important, but more because it afforded a good place to 
collect a sample. It can be described as a gritty, non-calcareous 
shale, which has enough plasticity when ground and mixed with 
water to permit its being used for making brick. It fires to a 
rather porous, but moderately hard red brick at 950°C., but ia 
inferior to the New Providence, Lulbegrud or Estill shales. 

The New Providence shale is by far the most important one 
in Lewis County, and is worked at Fire Brick on the Ohio River, 
a short distance southwest of Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Firebrick. At this locality the New Providence shale is 
utilized by the Peebles Paving Brick Company for making pav- 
ing blocks. The plant has been operated by the present com- 

FlR. 54. Shale bank of Peebles Paving Brick Coropflny at Flrsbrlck. 

pany since 1914, and before that was known as the Portsmouth 
Granite Brick Company. Still earlier firebrick was made here, 
the fire clay being obtained from the Pennsylvanian formation 
which caps the ridges to the south of the plant. 



The New Providence shale utilized at the paving-bloek 
works is exposed in a high bank to the east of the factory. The 
material is blasted down, and a little residual clay from the 
shale gets mixed with the latter. The following tests indicate 
the character of the shale (Lab. No. 2449) : 


._ Red 

Fire ShrlnkagQ 



Nearly overflred 




i^ . 




w^^"-'- . 










FlK. 55. Peebles Pavin? Brick Co., Firebrick. 

This clay is used for paving block, but it could also be used 
for hollow blocks, drain tUe and common brick. 



It is similar to the shale from the same formation at Junc- 
tion City and Coral Ridge. 

The shale after (marrying is trammed to the works where 
it is ground first in a dry pan and then screened. Tempering 

FiK. W. Kilns of Ptel 

is done in a piigmill and molding in a stiff-mud side-cut machine, 
using a Dunn device for making an undulating cut through 
the clay bar. At the same time the name of brick is stamped 
on the clay bar. 

Drying is done in tunnels heated by waste heat from the 
kilns. The tunnels are 140 feet long and the drying takes 48 

There are 6 circular down-draft kilns, which are part of 
the original plant built here by the Harbison- Walker Refrac- 
tories Company. In addition the present company has built 
4 rectangular down-draft kilns. 

■ - . The clay shows some tendency to scum, but it makes a good 
hard block. According to figures supplied by the company the 
paving blocks show a loss of from 17 to 20 per cent on the abra- 
sion test. 


Perry County 

There are several coal mines in this county, which have 
shale associated with the coal, but none of them were tested. 
The following may be noted : 

Typo. Liberty Coal Company, 2 miles east of Typo or First 
Creek branch of Louisville and Nashville Railway. The No. 6 
coal, which is being worked, is overlain by 2 feet of soft gray, 
slightly gritty clay, full of leaf impressions. This is evidently 
softened by weathering, as farther in the mine it becomes very 
hard. The floor of the coal is composed of a 3-foot layer of very 
hard slaty shale 

Hazard. In the mine of the Bluegrass Coal Corporation the 
No. 6 coal has a shale roof, but it contains several thin coal 
streaks. The floor is a hard shale of very low plasticity. 

In another mine of the same company, i/4 mile south of 
Hazard, the No. 4 coal shows a roof of hard shale and sandstone, 
while below the coal is 18 inches of soft, gray, slightly gritty 
clay, containing many fern impressions. The No. 7 coal worked 
by the same company shows similar materials in the roof and 

The Perry Ice and Coal Company is also working the 
No. 4 coal, and the roof and floor materials are like those in the 
other mine 

Pike County 

Most portions of this county lie rather remote from the rail- 
w^ay. Samples were obtained from the mine of the T. N. Hoff- 
man Coal Company, on the east side of the Big Sandy River at 
Pikeville. The roof material is a slaty shale, and the floor is of 
similar character. Neither materials are refractory. 

Rowan County 

Clay-hearing Formations, Rowan County contains forma- 
tions ranging from the Silurian to Pennsylvanian inclusive. 

Silurian beds occupy but a small area in the most western 
part of the county bordering the valley of the Licking River. 

Devonian strata occupy a narrow belt in the valley of Trip- 
let Creek eastward to Morehead, in the valley of North Fork 
at Triplet Creek, and in the Licking River Valley. 


Missiasippian formations underlie most of the remainder of 
the county, except for a strip of Pennsylvanian along its eastern 
border. There are also some outliers of Pennsylvanian rocks. 

Of these several formations the only ones that have been 
worked are the fire clay beds lying on the boundary between 
the PeDOsylvanian and Mississippian. 

Fire Clay Deposits. Fire clays were being worked during 
the summer of 1921 at Haldeman and on Obristy Creek, 5 miles 
southeast of Morehead. 

Haldeman. Kentucky Firebrick Company. This company 
whose main office is in Portsmouth, Ohio, has extensive clay 
holdings at this locality, while a holding company known as 
the Kentucky-Pennsylvania Pire Clay Company, associated 
with the preceding has additional clay lands. Other companies 
holding clay land in this vicinity are the Gilmore Fire Clay 
Company and the Harbison- Walker Hefractories Company. 

Fig. SI. view from upper mine of Kentucky Fire Clay Company at Halde- 
man, looking towards dump of old mines. 

The only company operating here at present is the Ken- 
tucky Firebrick Company which has two fire-brick plants. 

The mines worked are located in the hill south of the plants, 
and the deposit has been opened up hy several tunnels and with 
cross entries connecting them. One tunnel enters the hill above 
the eastern plant and the other nearer to the western plant. 


The deposit contains flint clay, semi-hard clay, and No. 2 
plastic clay, but the position of the flint clay with relation to the 
other two may vary in different parts of the mine. This is 
shown by the following four sections: 


Ft. In. 

Black shale %-3 

Coal ~ 2 

Flint clay 2-3 

Semi-hard clay 3 

No. 2 plastic clay. 


(Black shale. Ft. 

No. 2 plastic clay 1% 

Flint clay 2 

Semi-hard clay 2^4 


•Shale Ft. In. 

Coal - 1 

Semi-hard clay IVi 

Flint clay 2 

No. 2 plastic clay 2 



Shale 2 

Semi-hard clay 2 

No. 2 plastic 1% 


Vegetable matter and thin films of g>'i>sum may be present, 
especially in the flint clay. The pinkeye which frequently oc- 
curs in the floor, fires to a buff brick with minute iron spots. 

Crider (Ref. 8, p. 638) also gives a section from this mine, 
which in a general way resembles those given above except that 
he notes occasional thin shale layers between the coal and plastic 
clay, and also gives the coal as 4 inches thick, showing that it 
is of variable thickness. 

The clay is trammed from the mines in small cars to the 
tipple, where it is passed through a jaw crusher. It then goes 
to dry pans and screens, after whii*h it is distributed to the bins. 


All three grades of clay are used in different proportions, 
together with grog for making the different grades of brick. 
The clay for special shapes is tempered in wet pans, and these 
as is commonly the custom are molded by hand. For standard 
shapes the clay is tempered in a pugmill and then molded in an 
auger machine. 

The special shapes are dried on floors, while the standard 
shapes are put through tunnels heated by waste heat from the 
kilns, and this requires 36 hours. 

Burning is done in down-draft kilns of which there are 13 
at the No. 1 plant and 11 at the No. 2 plant. The firing requires 
9 days, and cone 8 is said to be turned down in the bottom of 
the kiln. 

The two plants have a capacity of 40,000, and 35,000 bricks 
daily, respectively. 

Hays Crossing, Gilmore Fire Clay Company. The head 
office of this company is at 421 Wood street, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and the corporation has over 5,000 acres of land in this region. 
Most of the fire clay is said to be located on the waters of the 
East Fork of Triplett Creek, Buffalo Run, Slab Camp Run, 
Sees Branch, Paddy Lick, and Deep Ford of Christy Creek. 
The clay is nearly all on the south side of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Railway. 

The Hays Crossing mine contains mostly No. 2 semi-hard 
clay, 5 to 8 feet thick, with a shale roof and a floor of pinkeye 
3-4 feet in thickness. Below the pinkeye is limestone. 

A layer of coal i/^ to 12 inches thick runs all through the 
property, and is usually present as a parting in the semi-hard, 
4-5 feet above its base. 

The company has flint clay on the Slab Camp Run, Deep 
Ford Paddy Lick, and Sees Branch of Christy Creek. This clay 
is said to be 3-4 feet thick, wuth 2-4 feet of semi-hard coming in 
on top of it. The flint clay has a sandstone floor and roof. 

Mr. C. E. Bales has supplied the following analysis of a 
No. 2 plastic fire clay from the mine of the GiUmore Fire Clay 
Company : 


Siltea 63.86 

Alumina ^ 32.40 

Ferric oxide 1.52 

Lime 02 

Magnesia 10 

Alkalies 50 

Ignition 11.40 


Morekead, General Refractories Company. This company 
is operating mines located 5 miles southeast of Morehead, on 
a spur track from the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. There are 
two mines known as Nos. 1 and 2, and the two following sections 
give the average thickness and character of the material in each : 

L n. 

Ft. In. Ft. In: 

Black shale roof 

No. 2 plastic clay 1-2 2 

Coal 0-8 0-8 

Flint clay 4-5 3% 

Semi-hard clay 1-2 1% 


Overlying the roof shale is sandstone, but the contact be- 
tween the two is more or less obscured by weathering products. 
The No. 2 clay is occasionally as much as 3 feet thick. In the 
No. 2 mine the No. 2 clay is sometimes found entirely above the 
coal, in which case the flint clay is usually overlain by a thin 
layer of coal, and sometimes even grades into the latter. This 
clay is generally light in color, and may contain small white spots 
that are possibly gypsum. 

The semi-hard clay varies in thickness in both mines, but 
does not show the white spots above mentioned. It is usually 
sharply separated from the flint and always lies below it. 

Miscellaneous Fire Clay Occurrences. The Clearfield Lum- 
ber Company owns large tracts of land in Rowan, Morgan and 
Elliott counties, and has done some prospecting in the flint clay 

One flint clay deposit shows up on Clark Mountain 3 miles 
from Morehead: also on Buckett Creek in Morgan County, 17 
miles from Morehead. The section here is: 


Ft. In. 

Pebbly sandstone 

Coal 10 

Flint clay 4 

i No. 2 fiint clay ~..^........^..~....«.... 4 

I Limestone 10-14 

Clay 5 

Gray sandstone 

Crider (Ref. 8, p. 643) refers to a fire clay which has been 
worked on Sam Bradley's land, 3 miles south of Morehead, 
near the head of Morgan branch. If Crider 's diagnosis is cor- 
rect, the peculiar feature of this clay is that it occurs in the 
conglomerate, 40 feet above top of Maxville limestone. 

Other occurences are noted on the map of a portion of 
Rowan Count j', Ky., which is included within this report. 

Blairs Mill. A puzzling occurrence of clay is that found on 
the Morehead and North Pork railroad, south of Morehead, and 
near the station of Blairs Mill. It has already been noted by 
Miller, (Bef. 22), because of the possibility of its throwing some 
light on the age of the flint clays of this region. The exposures 
near Blairs Mill are as follows : 

Along the bank of the creek and in the railroad cut about 
200 yards southeast of Blairs Mill the section shows : 

Pottsville conglomerate « 

Covered 20-30 ft. 

Sandstone 5 ft. 

Gray clay shale 5 ft. 

Fossiliferous limestone 4 ft. 

The gray clay shale closely resembles the so-called huckle- 
berry clay which is found above the fire clay in many parts of 
Carter and Rowan counties. 

In the railroad cut % mile north of Blairs Mill the sec- 
tion is: 

Conglomerate 15 ft 

Gray limestone 6 ft. 

Yellow sandy limestone 8 ft. 

Fossiliferous shaly limestone 3 ft. 

Massive gray limestone 15 ft 

Yellow limestone 1 ft 

"Flint clay" 4 ft 



The conglomerate which shows at the top of the section may 
possibly not be in place, but higher up the mountain slope are 
great cliffs of conglomerate. The gray shale resembles the 
huckleberry seen south of Blairs Mill, but here is interstratified 
with very thin layers of shaly limestone which are fossiliferous. 
The so-called flint clay outcrops about the level of the railroad 
tracks. In its fresh condition it reminds one somewhat of an 
impure flint clay, has a conchoidal fracture and is quite hard. 
It is not refractory, since at 1430° C. it is pretty well fused. 

Again at a point ly^ miles north of Blairs Mill the railroad 
cut shows the same bed of supposed flint clay, under the yellow 
limestone, but the clay here is weathered on the outcrop to a 
somewhat plastic mass of a greenish color. The section at this 
point is : 

Gray Hmestone 4 ft. 

Yellow limestone 9 ft. 

"Flint clay," weath-ered on outcrop 4 ft. 

Railroad level. 

It should be said that the limestones referred to in the 
above sections are all of Mississippian age as determined by 
their fossils. The fossiliferous shale is classed by Prof. Miller 
as Pennington shale. 

One-half mile south of Blairs Mill a small tunnel has been 
constructed to carry the water of the North Pork of Licking 
River. Most of this tunnel is in Pgttsville conglomerate, of 
which at least 40 feet is here exposed, but immediately below 
the conglomerate there is to be seen 3 feet of a shaly rock which 
in appearance closely resembles flint clay, and which is probably 
refractory, for at 1430° C. it shows no signs of being affected by 
the heat. 

The relation of these exposures to the general geology of 
the flint clays is discussed on an earlier page of this chapter. 
It is of interest to note in this connection that Crider (Ref. 8, 
p. 644) gives a section on Yocum Creek, a stream entering the 
north fork of the Licking River, opposite Paragon, which is as 
follows : 


Ft Id. 


Thin bands ot blue limestone i 

Calcareous black shale 5 

Mlaslsalpplan limestone 

The similarity to the Blairs Mill section lies in the occur- 
rence o£ the clay rock between the limestones. 

New Providence Shales. At Kockville station, a hill lying 
just west of the quarry of the Kentucky Bluestone Company, is 
said to show a section of soft, blue. New Providence shales, 90 
feet in thickness. The overburden consists of about 15 feet of 
loose soil, that could be easily stripped off. 

Whitley County 
"Whitley County lies entirely within the area of Pennsyl- 
vanian formations. The only development of clay that is known 
in the county is at Woodbine, where the Corbin Brick Company 
has a briek plant located '^ mile south of town. Both common 
and rough texture brick are made. At the present time only 
thti local market is supplied, but a switch was being put in 
during the summer of 1921 so that the product can be shipped 
by rail. 

¥•i^r. E9. Clay pit of 

The clay is obtained from a bank located close to the works, 
and is largely residual from a shale deposit which contains lay- 


ers of sandstone. However, a portion of the top may be of al- 
luvial character, having been deposited by the neighboring 

The section in the pit is : 

Ft. In. 

Soil (stripped) 8 

Yellow clay (bums white) 2 

Dark clay (bums red) 3 

Gray fissile shale ^ 1-4 

Sandy clay (not used) 1-4 

The clay is dug down to the shale floor of the pit. It is 
hauled up an incline to the works and dumped into rolls. From 
these it is carried by a conveyor to the pugmill and then to the 
stiflf-mud machine. The clay is sufficiently moist in its natural 
condition so that no water has to be added to it. Drying is done 
in tunnels, which are heated by brick flues leading from fire 
boxes at one end of the tunnel. It requires about 36 hours. The 
burning is done in 4 circular down-draft kilns, 30 feet in diame- 
ter, and requires about 9 days. No cones or pyrometer are used. 

The brick vary somewhat in their color according to the clay 
used. The upper clay is white burning while that in the lower 
part of the pit bums red. Below the shale seen in bottom of 
pit is a bed of sandy clay, which is said to bum white, but this 
is not used. 

Gardner (Ref. 13, p. 223) gives the following two partial 
analyses of clay from Whitley County, without any further 
data concerning them : 



Ferric oxide 


Magnesia .... 



I. Is said to be a 5-foot bed on Indian Creek. 

II. *Mellico clay" from near the Tennessee boundary. 


















Wolfe County 

This county is underlain entirely by Pennsylvanian forma- 
tions, except some small strips of Mississippian formations in the 
western part. There may also be small alluvial deposits along 
some of the streams. 

Several occurrences have been noted by Easton (Ref. 10) 
and Gardner, (Ref. 13). 

Hazel Oreen, On the 0. W. McNabb place 1 mile northwest 
of Hazel Green, there is a light plastic clay which is said to be- 
long in the coal measures. No data are given regarding its thick- 
ness, or the amount of overburden. Easton states that it fires 
to a pink color, burning to green at cone 9. It has 5% air 
shrinkage, 5% fire shrinkage, and 29.5 pounds per square inch 
tensile strength. The clay is vitrified at cone 8. 

On the J. B. Kash and J. W. Stamper farms, near the sum- 
mit of the hills, there is a deposit which Gardner calls flint clay, 
and which he states is of workable thickness. The material is 
almost devoid of plasticity and burns white. It has 0% air 
shrinkage, 6% fire shrinkage and very low tensile strength. At 
eone 11 the body is granular and porous. 

On the S. W. Perkins place, 1^/^ miles west of Hazel Green, 
along the Hazel Green and Mt. Sterling road, there is a deposit 
of alluvial or flood plain clay on the east side of the Red River. 
It is bluish, plastic, and runs about 6 feet in thickness, with an 
extent of 30 acres. The material is capped by soil, and rests 
on shale. It has 5% air shrinkage, S^o fire shrinkage, 52.5 
pounds per square inch tensile strength. It is not vitrified at 
cone 9. 

On the farm of W. C. Coldiron there occurs a very smooth 
plastic clay. Nothing definite is known regarding its extent. 
A sample sent to the Geological Survey fired to a light red color 
and was steel hard at 950° C. It is not a fire clay, but could 
probably be used for brick and tile. 

Torrent. On the J. Taylor Day place, ^ mile west of Tor- 
rent, according to Gardner, there occurs a gray clay said to 
belong to the Pennington formation. It is of low plasticity, has 
7% air shrinkage, 0% fire shrinkage, and is incipiently fused 
at cone 7. The clay burns to a red color. 


Glen Cairn. Gardner notes a clay on the N. Fulks place east 
of town. It outcrops on the side of a hill above the first cut of 
the Lexington and Eastern Railway. The section as given by 
him does not indicate workable conditions at this particular 
locality. It is: 

St. Louis limestone 40 ft. 

Refractory clay 1% ft. 

Covered 20 ft. 

Drab clay 2 ft. 

Waverly shale 23 ft. 

The shale is rather low in plasticity, fires to a red color 
and is vitrified at cone 5. 


The Clay Working Industry op Kentucky 

Keference to the different clay-working plants has been 
made under the individual county descriptions on the earlier 
pages of this report, but it may seem advisable to give here a 
collective statement regarding the different branches of the 
^•lay-working industry as now developed. 

The products at present manufactured in the state include 
common, rough textured, pressed and paving brick, hollow 
blocks, fiue linings, floor, wall and roofing tile, sewer pipe, drain 
tile, chimney tops, fire brick and other refractory shapes, red 
earthenware, stoneware, and art pottery. In the majority of 
cases the different plants obtain their clays close to the fac- 
tory, only a few of them. purchasing clays from outside of the 

In addition to the manufacturing branch of the clay in- 
ilt'.stry there are a number of individuals or firm^s engaged in 
the mining of clay, the product of whose pits is disposed of to a 
large extent outside of the state. 

The dift'erent kinds of product will be taken up separately. 

Common Brick 

These are manufactured at a number of localities, many of 
the plants having a thoroughly modern equipment. The raw 
materials used are all of red-burning character and include al- 
luvial clays often underlying river terraces, residual clays and 
shales. The bricks are nearly always machine made, usually 
either the soft-mud or stiff -mud process being used^^ but a few 
employing the dry-press method of molding. Important localities 
of production are Paducah, Louisville, and vicinity, Maysville, 
Madisonville, Firebrick, Henderson, etc. There is an abund- 
ance of both clay and shales for common-brick manufacture in 
many parts of the state. 

C of K— 8 


The following firms are engaged in the manufacture of com- 
mon brick: 

County Town Firm Name 

Barren ^Glasgow Dickinson Brick and Tile Company. 

Bath Salt Lick w. M. Harrick Brick and Tile Co. 

Boyd Ashland J. J. Gates and Company. 

Boyd Bellefonte Means and Russell Iron Co. 

Campbell Mentor Busse Brick Co. 

Christian ^ Hopkinsville Dalton Bros. Brick Co. 

Clinton A^lbany ^R. L. Sloan. 

Daviess Maceo Maceo Brick and Tile Works. 

Daviess ^Owensboro S. B. McCullough. 

Daviess Moseleyville Clark Manufacturing Co. 

Fayette Lexington Lexington Brick Co. 

Graves Mayfield Standard Brick Co. 

Hardin West Point West Point Brick Co. 

Henderson « Henderson Kleymeyer and Klutey Brick and Tile 


Hickman Clinton J. A. Harpole. 

Hickman Columbus Thos. Boodman. 

Hopkins Ashbyburg Clark Manufacturing Co. 

Hopkins Madisonville W. L. Hall. 

Jefferson Coral Ridge Coral Ridge Clay Products Co. 

Jefferson Whitner Southern Brick and Tile Co. 

Jefferson Louisville Progress Brick Co. 

Jefferson Louisville P. Bannon Pipe Co. 

Jessamine « iVicholasville A. H. Schneider. 

Kenton Covington Busse Brick Co. 

Kenton -Covington ....Broering & Merer. 

Knox Barboursville Barboursville Brick Co. 

Lewis Firebrick Peebles Paving Brick Co. 

McCracken Paducah Hill and Karnes Brick Co. 

McCracken Paducah Paducah Brick & Tile Co. 

Madison Bybee Walter Cornelison. 

Madison Waco Grisitead and Stone. 

Marion Lebanon Goodwin Brick and Tile Co. 

Mason Maysville Maysville Brick Co. 

Mason Maysville Spahr Brick Co. 

Muhlenberg Central City Central City Brick Co. 

Nelson New Haven Nelson Brick & Tile Co. 

Powell Stanton Atkinson and Baker. 

Taylor Campbellsvillo ...Russell Creek Association. 

Union Sturgis Quinwin Brick and Tile Cc 

Webster Providence Providence Brick Co. 

Webster Sebree U. S. Bishop and Sons 

Whitley Woodbine Corbin Brick Co. 


Rough Texture Brick 

A few firms engaged in the manufacture of common stiff- 

mud brick also produce rough texture brick; a rough-surface 

brick used for facing walls, and much admired by many people. 

These include the following: 

County Town Firm Name 

Hardin West Point West Point Brick Co. 

Lewis Firebrick Peebles Paving Brick Co. 

Mason Maysville Spahr Brick Co. 

Whitley Woodbine Corbin Brick Co. 

Face Brick 

Red face brick, of different shades, and sometimes flashed 
are produced by some of the manufacturers of comomn brick. 
In many instances they are simply selected common brick that 
are used for fronts. 

Paving Brick 

The only firm engaged in the manufacture of paving brick 
is the Peebles Brick Company of Firebrick, Lewis County. The 
product is paving block made from the New Providence shale, 
a formation that encircles the Bluegrass region from Lewis Coun- 
ty to Jefferson County. 

Hollow Block 

There is an abundance of shale in Kentucky which can be 
used in the manufacture of hollow block, such as the New Provi- 
dence, Estill and Lulbegrud shale. Some of the coal measures 
shales like those around Madisonville would also serve well. 
Even alluvial and other clays are sometimes employed. The 
product in every case is of red color, and bears an excellent 
reputation. The following firms are engaged in the production 
of this class of ware : 

County Town Firm Name 

Daviess MoseleyviUe Clark Manufacturing Co. 

Hopkins Madisonville Hall Tile Works. 

Jefferson Coral Ridge Coral Ridge Clay Products Co. 

Jefferson Louisville P. Bannon Pipe Co. 

Union Sturgls ~ Quinwin Brick and Tile Oo. 

Webster ishbyburg Clark Manufacturing Co. 

Webster Sebree U. S. Bishop and Sons. 


It is interesting to note that no hollow blocks are made 
in the eastern central part of the state, although the New Provi- 
dence shale occurs there in large quantity. 

Flue Linings 

These are commonly made from low-gmde, bnff-bnrning fire 
clays or shales. They are at present r^n^laily manufactured 
only by the P. Bannon Pipe Company of Louisville, and the 
Owensboro Sewer Pipe Company at Owenaboro. The former 
uses Indiana clay in part, the latter only Kentucky clay. With 
suitable demand this branch of the industry could be increased. 

Floor Tile 

Only one factory, the Cambridge Tile Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Covington, is engaged in the manufacture of white vi- 
trified floor tile, and similar ones of blue, green and other colors. 
The product is of the type known as ceramics, and is widely 
used. The clays employed are obtained from other states. 

Red quarry tile of excellent quality are made at Clover- 
port by the Murray Roofing Tile Company, the raw material be- 
ing obtained from the Buffalo Wallow shale formation. 

Wall Tile 

White and colored wall tile, with dull or bright glaze finish 
or with smooth or embossed surface are manufactured by the 
Cambridge Tile ^lanufacturing Company of Covington, and the 
Alhambra Art Tile Company, of Newport- The raw materials 
are obtained largely from other states. 

BoopiNG Tile 

Only one factory in Kentucky, the Murray Roofing Tile 
Company of Cloverport, is producing this type of work. ThQ 
product consists entirely of red shingle tile of fine color and 
excellent quality. The factory was originally established for 
manufacturing paving brick. In former years some roofing 
tile were manufactured from the Irvine days in Madison 


Sewer Pipe 

As clays suitable for making sewer pipe are not as abun- 
dant as other types, factories producing this class of goods are 
rather restricted. Indeed there are only two sewer-pipe plants 
in the state. These are the P. Bannon Pipe Company, of Louis- 
ville, which utilizes a mixture of Indiana fire clay, semi-hard 
clay from Carter County, and some New Providence shale. The 
other is the Owensboro Sewer Pipe Company, of Owensboro, 
which makes use of low-grade refractory shale from Hancock 

The practice at both plants is rather unique because of the 
low temperature at which they salt glaze their ware. 

Drain Tn.E 

In point of numbers, the plants engaged in making drain tile 
in Kentucky, stand next to those producing common brick. 
They are in some cases the sole product of the plant, while at 
others they are made in conjunction with brick. While the 
clays employed must be smoother and more plastic than is 
necessary for common brick, still at many plants the same ma- 
terial is sometimes used for both. 

Alluvial clay, residual clays, and shales are all used at one 
loL'ality or another. The clays employed are all red burning. 

The firms engaged in making drain tile are given below : 

County Town Firm Name 

Bath Salt Lick W. M. Karrick Brick & Tile Co. 

Christian Hopkinsville Dalton Bros. 

Daviess Moseleyville Clark Manufacturing Co. 

Henderson Henderson Kleymeyer-Klutey Brick and Ti'.e 


Hopkins \shbyburg Clark Manufacturing Co. 

Hopkins Madisonville Madison ville Drain Tile Co. 

Jefferson Whitner Southern Brick & Tile Co. 

Madison Bybee Walter Cornelison. 

Madison Waco Waco Pottery. 

Marion Lebanon Goodwin Brick and Tile Co. 

Nelson New Haven Nelson Brick & Tile Co. 

Union Uniontown Alhorn and Waller. 

Union Sturgis Quinwin Brick & Tile Co. 

Webster Scbree U. S. Bishop & Sons. 

Wolfe Hazel Green Hazel Green Brick & Tile Works. 


The Fire Brick Industry 

The refractories industry of eastern Kentucky is of such 
importance that it is deserving of special mention. 

According to Crider, (Ref. 8), S. Eifort, K. B. Grahn and 
J. McL. Stoughton bought 10,000 acres of land in the Olive 
Hill district about 1868, with the intention of erecting an iron 
furnace. They formed the Tygart Valley Iron Company. The 
railroad through this region was not built, however, until 1882. 
The furnace venture apparently was not continued and the 
three members of the company divided up their land, and later 
Kifort began to ship fire clay. 

In 1871 fire clays -were mined in Ijewis County and shipped 
to Cincinnati for making fire brick. It is also claimed by some 
that in 1870 they were being made at Bellefonte Furnace near 

Eifort in 1883 shipped the first Olive Hill clay to the Iron- 
ton Fire Brick Works, and this gave such good results that 
soon plants in Ashland, Cincinnati, Sciotoville and Louisville 
were obtaining clay from there. It wmII therefroe be seen that 
much of the clay mined at that time was shipped out of Ken- 

About this time or in 1884 fire clays were worked at Amanda 
Furnace, although they may have been worked at a still earlier 

In 1886 the Ashland Fire Brick Company constructed its 
plant at Ashland, and this was one of the first plants to be com- 
pleted in the state. 

It w^as not until 1895, or 5 years later, that Eifort, Grahn 
plant at Ashland, but this some years later was purchased by 
the Ashland Fire Brick Company. 

It was not until 1895, or 9 years later, that Eifort, Grahn 
and Stoughton erected a fire brick plant at Olive Hill, and known 
as the Olive Hill Fire Brick Company. This plant was sup- 
plied from the old Burnt House mine which was said to have a 
deposit of clay is 27 feet thick. From another source we are in- 
formed that this plant was built by A. E. Hitchins and Geo. H. 
Parks. It was subsequently taken over by the General Refrac- 
tories Company, which has erected a modern plant at the site. 


Another early plant established here was the Olive Hill 
Calcine Company, which was run for the purpose of mining and 
Calcining flint clay. Their mine was a short distance from the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, up Henderson branch. The en- 
terprise was not very successful, it is said, and the plant was shut 
down when the clay gave out. 

In 1900 the Ashland Fire Brick Company erected its plant 
at Hayward, Carter County, followed in 1901 by the construc- 
tion of Harbison-Walker Refractories plant at Olive Hill, and 
in 1903 by the Kentucky Fire Brick Company at Haldeman. 

In 1911 the Louisville Firebrick Works erected a plant at 

In 1912 the General Refractories Company built its fac- 
tory at Plitchins. 

We thus find a chain of factories extending from Ashland 
to Haldeman, distributed as follows: 

Ashland, 2 ; Hitchins, 1 ; Grahn, 2 ; Olive Hill, 2 ; Hayward, 
1 ; and Haldeman, 2. These combined plants have an aggregate 
daily capacity of 445,000 expressed in terms of 9-inch brick. 
To this might be added the plant of Chas. Taylor & Sons, at 
McCall, with 40,000 capacity, and the Louisville Fire Brick 
Works at Highland Park near Louisville, established in 1889, 
with oO,000 capacity, making a total for the state of 535,000 

County Town Firm Name 

Boyd ....: \8hland Ashland Fire Brick Co. 

Carter Grahn Louisville Fire Brick Works. 

Carter Hayward Ashland Fire Brick Co. 

Carter hitchins General Refractories Co. 

Carter Olive Hill Harbison Walker Refractories Co. 

Carter Olive Hill General Refractories Co. 

Greenup McCall Chas. Taylor Sons Co. 

Jefferson ^-.ouisville Louisville Fire Brick Works. 

Jefferson -Louisville P. Bannon Pipe Co. 

Rowan Haldeman Kentucky Fire Brick Co. 


More record appears to have been kept of Pottery manu- 
facture in Kentucky than of many other kinds of day wares. 
The first establishment noted is that of the Lewis Pottery Com- 


pany, started in Louisville in 1829. It, however, only continued 
until 1836 when the owners were induced to move to Troy, Ind. 
Aj^ain in 1840 another potterj- was established by a Mr. Han- 
cock, in Ix)uLsville. In the Geological Survey Report for 1856 
a Calloway County clay is said to have been used by Captain 
Bonner in that countj' for making stoneware. This material 
was possibly some of the Tertiary clay of that rejrion which has 
since become important for use in pottery and tile manufacture. 

Potterv works were started at Paducah in 1886, but the 
clays employed came from Grand Chain, III., Boaz, Ky., and 
Hound Knob, 111. 

By the year '[SSH, potteries makinj? brown jars and jugs 
were in operation at Pottertown, Bell City, Lynnville, Paducah, 
Columbus and Hickman, but they were small plants built to 
supply local trade, and all located in the Purchase region. Some 
of them are no longer in operation. As late as 1906 potteries 
were in operation at Paducah, Pottertown, Roi'k, Tompkins- 
ville, Wickliffe, Water Valley, Mayfield and Columbus in the 
Purchase area, but only at the first named locality is one still 
in operation. 

C rider (Ref. 8, p. 675) describes a pottery plant located 
near ClifTside Park, between Ashland and Catlettsburg, which 
was still in operation in 1912, but is so no longer. It made 
t.toneware jugs, etc. 

At the present day there are few potteries in operation with- 
in the state, although there exists an abundance of raw materials 
suitable for common earthenware and stoneware manufacture. 
The New Providence shale supplies an excellent clay for mak- 
ing red flower pots, while stoneware clays can be obtained either 
from the Tertiary formations of the Purchase region or from 
those of Madison County. 

The following list gives the potteries at present operating 
in Kentucky together with the class of ware produced: 

County Town Firm Name Product 

Calloway ....Pottertown ..Falwell and Son Stoneware. 

Graves Bell City W. D. Russell Stoneware. 

Jefferson Louisville ...Louisville Pottery Co... Stoneware, Red 

Earthenware. Imi- 
tation whiteware. 


County Town Firm Name 

McCracken Paducah Padacah Pottery Co Stoneware. 

Madison Bybee Bybee Pottery Co Hand made blue 

art pottery. 

Madison Waco Waco Pottery ^ Stoneware and blue 

art pottery. 

CuiY MiNiKG Industry 

The clay mining industry is developed in three areas, viz. : 
1. The Purchase region. 2. Around Covington; and 3, the 
Olive Hill region. 

The clays dug in the Purchase region are nearly all obtained 
from the Lagrange formation, and are worked in Graves County. 
They are refractory clays, often of high plasticity, and good 
bonding power. Many of them bum sufficiently white to be 
used in whiteware bodies. They are consequently employed in 
mixtures for white earthenware, electrical porcelain, sanitary 
ware, wall and floor tile, glass refractories, graphite crucibles, 
saggers,, etc. 

Those which are dug near Briensburg in the Purchase region 
are used in stoneware. 

The clays that arc dug around Covington are not refrac- 
iory, but are used locally at founderies and iron furnaces. 

The clays obtained in the Olive Hill district bear a wide 
and excellent reputation for the maintenance of refractories. 
Some of the mines are operated by the companies using the clay, 
while others are worked by companies or individuals who have no 
brick plants, but seU the clay to the consumer. 

Not a little of the fire clay therefore finds its way to plants 
located in Ohioy notably those at Portsmouth, Cincinnati and 
Ironton. The balance is used chiefly at fire brick plants located 
in the eastern coalfield, though soihe is shipped to Louisville. 

The following is a list of clay miners, who do not 
own elay-manufactnring plants, or whose mines are not adja- 
cent to factoiy: 

County Town Firm Name 

Ballard Wickliffe American Clay Co. 

Ballard .^Wickliffe La Clede Christy Clay Co. 

Calloway. ^Murray U. S. Clay Co. (Not developed.) 

Calloway... ..Mnrray Calloway County Clay Co. (Not de- 


County Town Firm Name 

Carter Aden Kerns Mining Co. 

Carter Denton J. H. Burdette. 

Carter Denton Haibi&on- Walker Refractories Co. 

Carter Soldier- — J. D. Patton. 

Carter Soldier p. Bannon Pipe Co. 

Carter Soldier Harbison- Walker Refractories Co. 

Graves Hickory Excelsior Ball Clay Co. 

Graves Hickory Colonial Clay Co. 

Graves Hickory Old Hickory Clay & Talc Co. 

Graves Hickory M. B. Coo ley Clay Co. 

Graves Hickory West Kentucky Clay Co. 

Graves Viola — Kentucky Clay Mining Co. 

Graves Pryorsburg Kentucky Construction and Improve- 

ment Co. 

Graves Pryorsburg Mayfleld Clay Oo. (Not operating.) 

Kenton ....: Covington S. J. Moore. 

Marshall Benton Howard Clay Pit. (Not operating) 

Marshall Benton Lon Lofton Clay Pit. (Not operating.) 

Marshall Briensburg Paducah Clay Co. ^ 

Rowan Gates -Gilmore Fire Clay Co. 

Rowan Mcrehead General Refractories (yompany. 

Rowan Enterprise Ironton Fire Brick Co. 


1. Berry, E. W. The Lower Eocene Flora of Southeastern North 
America, U. S. Geol. Sur., Prof. Pap. 91, 1916. 

2. Butts, C. Geology of Jefferson County, Ky. Geol. Surv., 1914-15. 

3. Butts, C. Descriptions and Correlation of the Mississippian Forma- 
tions of Western Kentucky. Ky. Geol. Surv., 1912. 

4. Campheix, Mr. R. U. S. Geol. Surv., Atlas Folio, London and Rich- 
mond Quadrangles. 

5. CriANDAM^ A. R. and Suixivan, G. M. The Coal Field adjacent to 
Pineville Gap. Ky. Geol. Surv., Bull. 14, Serial No. 17, 1912. 

6. Crandall, a. R. Report on the Geology of Greenup, Carter and 
Boyd counties. Ky. Geol. Qurv. 

7. Crider, a. F. Clays of Western Kentucky and Tennessee. U. S. 
Geol. Survey, Bull. 285, 1906. 

8. Crider, a. F. The Fire Clays and Fire Clay Industries of the Olive 
Ilill and Ashland Districts of Northeastern Kentucky. Ky. Geol. 
Surv., Fourth Series, Vol. I, Pt. II, pp. 589-711, 1913. 

f). Crump, M. H. Clays and Building Stones in Kentucky. Eng. and 

Min. Jour., Vol. 66, p. 190, 1898. 
10. Easton, H. D. Report on the Technology of Kentucky Clays. In- 
cluding Chemical and Mechanical Analyses, and Burning Tests. 
Ky. Geol. Surv., Fourth Scries, Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 713-888, 1913. 


11. FoERSTE, A. F. The Silurian, Devonian and Irvine Formations of 
East Central Kentucky, with an account of their clays and lime- 
stones. Ky. Geol. Survey, Bull. 7, 1906. Also Bull. 6, p. 146, 1905. 

12. FoHs, F. J. Clays in Crittenden and Livingston Counties. Ken- 
tucky Geol. Surv., Bull. 6, 1905. 

13. Gardner, J. H. The Kaolins and Plastic Clays of the Eastern Rim 
of the Western Coalfield. Kentucky Geol. Surv., Bull. 6, 1905. 

14. Gardner, J. H. Clays and Sands of the Jackson Purchase Region. 
Kentucky Geol. Surv., Bull. 6, 1905. 

15. Glenn, L. C. Underground Waters of the Eastern United States. 
Tennessee and Kentucky, U. S. Geol. Surv., Water Supply and 
Irrigation paper. No. 164, 1906. 

16. Galpin, S. L. Studies of Flint Clays and Their Associates. Amer- 
ican Ceramic Society, Transactions, Vol. XIV. pp. 301-346, 1912. 

17. Gardner, J. H. Preliminary Report on the Economic Geology ol 
the Hartford Quadrangle. Ky. Geol. Surv.. Bull. 20, Serial No. 27 

18. Glenn, L. C. A Geological Reconnaissance of the Tradewater Re 
gion with special reference to the Coal Beds. Ky. Geol. Surv., Bull 
17. Serial 27, 1912. 

19. GREAVES-WALKra, A. F. The Flint Fire Clay Deposits of North 
eastern Kentucky. Amer. Ceramic Society, Transactions, Vol. IX 
pp. 461-472, 1907. Also Ibid., Vol. VIL 

20. Hutchinson, F. M. The Geology and Coals of the Central City 
Madisonville, Calhoun and Newberg Quadrangles; in iMuhlentoerg 
Hopkins, Ohio, McLean, Webster, Daviess and Henderson Counties 
Ky. Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 19, Serial No. 26, 1912. 

21. JiLLSON, W. R. and Sellieu, L. M. Geologic Map of Kentucky, col- 
ored, scale 1 in. == 10 miles. Ky. Geol. Survey, Ser. VI, 1920. 

22. LouGiiRiDGE, R. N. The Geological and Economic Features of the 
Jackson Purchase Region. Ky. Geol. Surv., 355 pp., pis., three maps, 
Frankfort, 1888. 

23. Miller. A. M. The Geology of Kentucky. Dept. Geol. and Forestry, 
Ser. V, Bull. 2, 1919. 

24. Peter, R. Chemical Report of the Coals, Clays, Mineral Water, 
etc., of Kentucky. Ky. Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 3, 1905. 

25. Piialen, W. C. Economic Geology of the Kenova Quadrangle. U. 
S. Geol. Surv., BuH. 349. 1908. 

26. Ries, H. Clays of the United States east of the Mississippi. U. S. 
Geol. Surv., Prof. Pap. 11, 1903. 

27. Rif>5, H. High Grade Clays of the United States. See forthcoming 
Bulletin of U. S. Geol. Survey. 

28. RiKS, H. and Leiqiiton, H. History of the Clay Working Industry 
in the United States. New York, 1909 (Wiley and Sons) 

29. Ulrcii, E. O. and Smith, W. S. T. Lead, Zinc and Fluorspar De- 

posits of Western Kentucky. U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Pap. 36, 1905. 

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• • * s 







• - -• 


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t, 67 

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Aden 184 

Asbyburg 70, 108 

Allegheny Formations 61 

Bales, C. E.-.76, 176, 184, 202, 217 
Ball Clay Te8ts..41, 42, 45, 46, 52 

Bal.ard County 30 

Bannon, P. & Co 124, 130, 203 

Barnes, J. D , 74 

Barren County 64 

Baskett 87 

Bath County 110 

Bedford Shale 3, 210 

Bell City Pottery 53 

Benton 55 

Big Clifty Sandstones 63 

Blair's Mill 210 

Bleipinger 25 

Blue Grass Region 109 

Blue Knob 112 

Bluff City 87 

Bonding Strength of Clays.. 17 

Bonnieville 101 

Boyd County 162 

Calloway Co 30, 32 

Cambridge Tile Mfg. Co .135 

Campbell County 114 

Campbellsville 102 

Carlisle County 35 

Carrico, E. J 36 

Carroll County 115 

Carter County 172 

Caswell, J 82 

Cential City Co 98 

Chapman, J. E 34 

Cherry 32 

Chester Shales 10 

Clark County 115 

Clark Mfg. Co 108 

Clay City 115, 149 

Clay, Town of 106 

Clay Bearing Formations, 

1, 73, 109 

Clay Mines 233, 234 

Clay Mining Industry 233 

Daviess County 67 

Davis Coal Co 170 

Day, J. Taylor 223 

Denton 175 




Alluvial Clays 90 

Ashland Fire Brick Co., 

164, 165, 166, 167 

Boyle County Ill 

Breathitt County 170 

Breckinridge County 64 

Brick Industry 100 

Brick, kind of 227 

Brick Manufacturers 226 

Brick & Tile Industry 88, 95 

Briensburg 56 

Broering & Meyer 135 

Buffalo Wallow 63 

Buffalo Wallow Shales 9 

Bullitt County lia 

Burdett, J. H 176 

Bureau of Mines 40 

Bureau of Standards 60 

Burnt House Mines 195 

Busse Brick Co 135 

Butler, J. W 85 

Button Mold Knob 123 

Bybee Pottery Co 140, 141 

Clay Tests, 

68, 69, 75, 77, 91, 115, 117, 119. 

126, 127, 129, 133, 138, 163, 164, 
168, 169, 171, 196, 197 
Clay Working Industry, 

124, 166, 225 

Clays with Coals 87 

Clifty Consolidated Coal Co. 107 

Colonial Clay Co 47 

Color after firing 19 

Common Brick 225 

Common Brick Clays 20 

Consolidated Coal Co 209 

Coogle, Jas 76 

Cook, J. W 143 

Cooley Clay Co., M. B 47 

Coral Ridge 6. 123, 212, 225 

Coral Ridge Clay Products 

Co 125, 127 

Corbin Brick Co 221 

Covington 136 

Crider, A. F 165, 182 

Crittenden County 63, 67 

Crossland 32 

Cruse, W 83 

Denton Plastic Clay Co 176 

Drain Tile 229 

Drain Tile Clays 21 




East End Brick Co 130 

Eastern Coal Field 11, 153 

Economy Mining Co 106 

Eden Shale 1 

Edmonson County 70 

Edwards, A. B 34 

Elkatawa Co 170 

Falwel. & Son 35 

Fayette County 121 

Filson Station 149 

Fineness of Clays 17 

Fire Brick Industry 230 

Fire Clays 94 

Fire Clay Deposits 156, 174 

Fire Clay, Age of 159 

Fire Clays, Relationships, 

157, 159 

Elliott County 204 

Enterprise 197 

Estill County 117 

Estill Shale 3, 110 

Eubank, Morgan 116 

Excelsio/ Clay Co 49 

Flood Plain Clays 116 

Floor Tile 23, 134, 228 

Flower Property 34 

Foerste, August 137 

Fohs, Julius 97 

Fralev, H. B 174 

Fulks, N 174 

Fulton County 36 

Fusion 19 


Gardner, J. H 72, 74, 79 

Gates, J. J. Co 170 

General Refractories Co., 

178, 179. 181, 185, 194. 218 
Gibraltar Coal Mining Co., 

98, 99 

Gilmore Fire Clay Co 217 

Glascock, W. S 73 

Glencairn 224 

Golconda 63 

Goldsmith Property, John.... 81 

Haddix 171 

Haldeman 214 

Hall, John 74 

Hall, W. L 95 

Hancock County 68 

Harbison Walker's Refrac- 
tories Co 175, 190, 193, 202 

Hardin 63, 73 

Hardness after firing 19 

Harp Ci ossing 47 

Hart County 62, 63, 78 

Hart Coal Corp 94 

HriT-tford Quadrangle 100 

Hawpsville 62 

Havward 198 

Inactive Mines 195 

Indian Fie'd 115. 116, 117 

Ironton Fire Brick Co 197 



Grahn Station 190 

Grant County 121 

Graves County 30, 36 

Graves-Walker 195, 196 

Grayson County 72 

.Green River Coal Co 87 

Greenup County 205 

Grimstead & Stone 137 

Grogan, B. D 33 

Gum, Alfred 118 

Hazard 213 

Hazelgreen 223 

Hendeison 61 

Henderson County 87 

Hickman County 54 

Hickory 43 

Highbaugh, Rosa 82 

Highland Mining Co 106 

Highland Park 132 

Hill & Karnes 58 

Hogons Camn, Marion 35 

Homcnvard Sandstones 164 

Hopkins County 89 

Howard, W. B. & Son 53 

Hunter Coal Co 106 

Irvine Clay 139 

Isaacs, J. B • 81 




Jackson 170 

Jefferson County 122 

Jeffersonville Limestone 124 

Jeffries, Taylor 74 

Kennon, J 149 

Kenton County 134 

Ky. Fire Clay Co 215, 216 

Ky. Construction & Improve- 
ment Co 36, 38, 39 

Ky. Clay Mining Co 51, 52 

Ky. Potteries 232, 233 

La Clede-Christy Co 31 

Laketon 35 

Laurel County 101 

Lawrence County 208 

Lee County 208 

Lebanon 144 

Letcher County 209 

Lewis County 112, 209 

Lewis Pottery Co 231, 232 

McCracken County 57 

McCoun T. B 140 

McKinney 141 

Maberly Brick Co 142 

Madison County 137 

Madisonville 61 

Maddix, P. F 186 

Madison Drain Tile Co 96 

Madison Coal Corporation... 99 
Mammoth Cave Limestone.. 64 

Marshall County 29, 55 

Martin Co'intv 144 

MaTville Limestone 160 

Mayfield C^av Co 43 

Mason County 145 

Nelson County 147 

Nelson Brick & Tile Co. 147, 148 

Nelson. Sam 77 

New Albany Shale 3 

Ohio Shale 2 

Ohio County 100 

Ohio River 103 

O'Kellv Brick Co 165 

Old Hickory Clay & Talc Co., 

43, 44 






Jenkins, J. B 73 

Jessamine County 134 

Johnstown , 122 

Junction City 212 

Kerns Mining Co 184 

Kidd, R. R 115 

Kiddville 116 

Kleymeyer, Klutey 88, 89 

Knobs, The 109 

Knote, J. M 181 

Knox County 207 

Licking River. 135, 220 

Lively, Pleas 83 

Livingston County 63, 97 

Louisville Fire Brick Works, 

131, 133, 185, 186, 189 

Louisville Pottery Co 131 

Lulbegrud Shale 2, 118 

Lynnhart farm 34 

Maysville Brick Co 146 

Mercer County 99 

Means & Russell Iron Co 169 

Mercer Coal Co 99 

M'lbonrn 36 

Miscellaneous Tests 57 

Montgomery County 147 

Moore, E. S 136 

Moss, Mrs. John 84 

Morehead 218 

Muhlenberg County 98 

Murray 33 

Mrrrav Pooling Tile Co 64 

Murray, S. J 81 

Music 182 

New Providence Shale, 

3, 111, 122. 150 

Nichol, Wash 75 

Non-Refractory Clays 204 

Olive Hill 190, 191 

OMve Hill Clay 154 

Onon(\f^sr» T^imestone 118 

Osgood Shale 2 

Owensboro Sewer Pipe Co. 67 



Pacific Coal Mining Co 99 

Paducah 29, 59 

Paducah Pottery Co 55, 58 

Paducah Clay Co 56 

Panola 120 

Paiagon 220 

Patton, J. D 200 

Paving Brick 21 

Peebles Paving Brick Co., 

210, 211, .212 

Pennsylvanian Shales 190 

Pennsylvanian System 10 

Perry County 213 

Peter, A. M 142 

Pike County 213 

Plastic Fire Clays 162 

Plasticity of Clays 19 

Pleistocene 13 

Quality of Clays 20 

Quails Mine 192, 193 

Refractory Clays 25 

Residual Clays 90 

ReynoMs, Wm 36 

Richardson, S. H 74 

Richards Clay Mining Co 203 

Ridenlower Shale 9, 63 

Riggs, James 85 

Sagger Clay Tests 44 

Salt Lfck 110 

Sebree 104 

Sewer Pipe 22, 229 

Shrinkage 16 

Silurian Shales 153 

Slaking Test 18 

Smith's Mills 87 

Soldier 200 

South Central Kentucky 61 

South Park Hills 122 

Southern Brick Co 128, 129 

Sphar Brick Co 145 

Taylor County 101 

Taylor, Charles & Sons, 

198, 206 

Tenner Brick Co 70 

Terrell, D. T. S 36 

Underclays of Coals 105 

Uniontown 61, 102, 103 





Plumb Creek shale 1 

Pontiac Coal Co 91, 92 

Porcelain 23 

Portsmouth Granite Brick 

Co 212 

Pottsvil.e Formation 61 

Pottsville Clay 166 

Pottery 231 

Pottertown 35 

Powell County 148 

Preddy, J. W 85, 86 

Preddy, Mrs. Louise 86 

Priorsburg 36, 42 

Progress Bfick Co 130 

Providence lO-l 

Purchase Region 29 

Purvis, J. T 102 

Quinwin Brick & Tile Co 102 

Riverside .. .: 171 

Roofing Tile 22, 228 

Rosenwood Shale 7, 122 

Rosslyn 150 

Rowan County 213 

Rupard, C. S 140 

Russell Creek Academy 102 

Spottsville 187 

Standard Brick Works 54 

Stanley Coal Co 93 

Stanton 148, 150 

Stephens, J. S 118 

Stephensburg 73 

Strength of Clays 17 

Sturgis 102 

Summit 77 

Sunbury Shale 3 

Suss, E. W 89 

Swindler, C. F '76 

Tertiary 12, 29 

Tests of Clays 15 

Tile. Kinds of 228 

Torrent 223 

Typo 213 

Unworked Deposits 66 



Virden 151 

Waco Pottery Co 137, 138 

Waldron Shale 3 

Wall Tile 134, 228 

Water of Plasticity 16 

Webster County 221 

West Ky. Clay Co 50 

West Ky. Coal Co 106 

West Point 61, 77 

West Point Brick Works 78 



Vitrification 18 

Western Clay & Mining Co. 97 

Western Coal Field 11, 61 

Wheatcroft 106 

White, W. T 31 

White Earthenware 23 

Wolfe County 223 

Woodbine 221 

Wyatt, A 47 

Wynn Coal Co 106 

X, Y, Z. 




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